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Electric light source materials (what are the types of electric light sources)

Release Time:2022-04-14 Topic:Recent stock market Reading:23 Navigation:Stock Liao information > Car > Electric light source materials (what are the types of electric light sources) phone-reading
Published on July 2, 2021 (author: Lushan tour guide)


Comparison of the types and uses of various light sources
Lighting electric light sources are generally divided into incandescent lamps, There are three categories of gas discharge lamps and other electric light sources. In the green lighting project, various light sources can be selected according to the specific conditions.
1. Incandescent lamp(Incandescentlamp)
1. Ordinary incandescent lamp is commonly used incandescent light bulb
Features: good dominant (Ra=100), turn on the light immediately, can be continuously dimmed, simple structure , Low price, but short life and low light efficiency
.
Uses: living room, living room, lobby, guest room, shop, restaurant, walkway, conference room, courtyard.
Application: table lamp, ceiling lamp, wall lamp, bedside lamp, corridor lamp.
2. Tungsten halogen lamps (tungstenhalogenlamp) gas filled gas containing some halogen elements or halides
incandescent lamps. It has all the characteristics of ordinary lighting incandescent lamps, and the light efficiency and life are more than doubled compared with ordinary lighting incandescent lamps, and the volume is small.
Uses: conference rooms, exhibition halls, living rooms, commercial lighting, film and television stages, instrumentation, automobiles, airplanes and other
special lighting.
.Fluorescent lamps commonly known as fluorescent lamps
Features: high luminous efficiency, long life and good light.
Fluorescent lamps include straight tube type, ring type, compact type, etc., and are energy-saving lighting sources with a wide range of applications. Replacing incandescent lamps with straight-tube fluorescent lamps
, saving 70~90% of electricity and 5~10 times longer life; upgrading straight-tube fluorescent lamps, saving electricity by 15~50%;
Replacing with compact fluorescent lamps Incandescent lamp, saving 70~80% of electricity, 5~10 times longer life;
4. Low pressure sodium (vapor) lamp
Features: high luminous efficiency, long life, high luminous flux maintenance rate, The fog permeability is strong, but the dominance is poor.
Uses: lighting in tunnels, ports, docks, mines, etc.
5. High-intensity discharge lamp (highintensitydischargelamp-HID)
High-intensity gas discharge lamps include: fluorescent high-pressure mercury lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps.
(1) Fluorescent high pressure mercury lamp
Features: long life and relatively low cost.
Uses: road lighting, indoor and outdoor industrial lighting, commercial lighting.
(2) High pressure sodium lamp
Features: long life, high light efficiency, strong fog permeability.
Uses: road lighting, flood lighting, square lighting, industrial lighting, etc.
() Metal halide lamp
Features: long life, high luminous efficiency, good dominance.
Uses: industrial lighting, urban lighting engineering lighting, commercial lighting, stadium lighting and road lighting, etc.
(4) Ceramic metal halide lamp
Features: The performance is better than the general metal halide lamp.
Uses: shopping malls, shop windows, key displays and commercial street lighting.
6. Electrodelesslamp
Features: long life (~hours), no electrode, instant start and restart, no stroboscopic, good dominance.
Uses: Public buildings, shops, tunnels, pedestrian streets, high pole street lights, security and safety lighting and other outdoor lighting.
7. Halogen bulb


Halogen bulb (Halogenlamp), also known as tungsten halogen bulb, is a kind of incandescent lamp. The principle is to inject
halogen gas such as iodine or bromine into the bulb. At high temperature, the evaporated tungsten wire reacts chemically with the halogen, and the evaporated tungsten will re-solidify on the tungsten
wire, forming a balanced cycle to avoid premature breakage of the tungsten wire. So halogen bulbs last longer than incandescent bulbs. In addition, halogen
bulbs also operate at higher temperatures than typical incandescent bulbs, and they are also much brighter and more efficient. At these temperatures, however,
ordinary glass may soften. Therefore, halogen bulbs need to use stone with a higher melting pointEnglish glass. Since quartz glass cannot block UV rays, halogen bulbs usually require an additional UV filter. If the crystal glass on the halogen bulb
has oil, it will cause the temperature on the glass to vary and reduce the life of the bulb. Therefore, when changing halogen bulbs, avoid touching the
glass of the bulb with human hands.
【Cordless Lights】
On June 10, 2007, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology conducted an experiment of "cordless light bulbs". The research team, led by Soljasic
k, used two copper wire coils to act as resonators, one connected to a power source, which acts as a transmitter, and the other
connected to a desk lamp, which acts as a receiver. As a result, they succeeded in lighting a 60-watt lamp
2.1 meters away from the transmitter. And experiments have shown that "wireless energy transfer" technology is not harmful to humans, because electromagnetic fields only affect objects that resonate
with them.
【LED Lights】
The structure and light-emitting principle of LEDs
50 years ago, people have understood the basic knowledge that semiconductor materials can generate light, and the first commercial diodes were produced in
1960. LED is the abbreviation of light emitting diode (light emitting diode) in English. Its basic structure is a piece of electroluminescent semiconductor material, which is placed on a lead frame, and then sealed with epoxy resin around it to protect the interior
> The role of the outer core wire, so the LED has good shock resistance.
The core part of the light-emitting diode is a wafer composed of p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor. There is a transition layer between p-type semiconductor and n
-type semiconductor, which is called p-n junction. In the P junction of some semiconductor materials, when the injected minority carriers recombine with the majority carriers, the excess energy will be released in the form of light, thereby directly converting electrical energy into light energy.
With reverse voltage applied to the P junction, it is difficult to inject minority carriers, so it does not emit light. This kind of diode produced by the principle of injection electroluminescence is called light emitting diode, commonly known as LED. When it is in a forward working state (that is, a forward voltage is applied to both ends), when the current
flows from the LED anode to the cathode, the semiconductor crystal emits light of different colors from ultraviolet to infrared. The intensity of the light is related to the electric
br> Stream related.
Features of LED light source:
1. Voltage: LED uses low voltage power supply, the supply voltage is between 6-24V, which varies according to different products, so it is a
safer than using high voltage power supply Power supply, especially suitable for public places.
2. Efficiency: The energy consumption is reduced by 80% compared with the incandescent lamp with the same luminous efficiency.
.Applicability: very small, each unit LED chip is -5mm square, so it can be prepared into various shapes
br> parts, and suitable for variable environment
4. Stability: 100,000 hours, light decay is 50% of the initial value
5. Response time: the response time of the incandescent lamp is millisecond, and the LED lamp The response time is in nanoseconds
6. Environmental pollution: no harmful metal mercury
7. Color: changing the current can be changed, light-emitting diodes can easily adjust the energy band junction of the material by chemical modification methods
structure and band gap, realizing red-yellow-green-blue-orange multi-luminescence. For example, an LED that is red when the current is small can
turn into orange, yellow, and finally green
as the current increases
8. Price: The price of LED is relatively expensive, compared with incandescent lamps, a few The price of only LED can be comparable to the price of an incandescent lamp, and usually each group of signal lights needs to be composed of 00 to 500 diodes.

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Label group:[halogen bulb] [Incandescent lamps] [fluorescent lamp

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