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Three indicators look at China's scientific and technological strength. Which areas have surpassed the US to become the world's number one? | Technology Yuanren Lite _ Index

Release Time:2021-07-18 Topic:What is the latest index in the U.S. today Reading:10 Navigation:Stock Liao information > Education > Three indicators look at China's scientific and technological strength. Which areas have surpassed the US to become the world's number one? | Technology Yuanren Lite _ Index phone-reading

Science and Technology Yuanren Program Barrage

Recently, three important indicator systems have been updated, namely the Nature index, Science & Engineering indicators and PCT patents. Some interesting new developments can be found from it, here to share with you.

First look at the natural index, this is our old acquaintance. The Nature Index was proposed by the top international journal Nature in 2014. It evaluates the basic research output of various countries or research institutions by counting articles published in 82 first-class journals in natural sciences. The biggest feature of this indicator is that the object of statistics is papers in first-class journals, and it is not easy to publish a paper, so the quantity is compared on the premise of ensuring the quality.

Specifically, the natural index gives two indicators.

One is called Count, which means that if one of the authors of a paper is from a certain country or research institution, the country or research institution is counted as 1 Minute. For example, if an article has two authors from China and the United States, then both China and the United States are counted as 1 point.

Doing so will lead to a large number of double counting, so another index is called the share of the paper (Share), which means that the total score of a paper is fixed at 1, in all Evenly distributed among authors. For example, if an article has two authors from China and the United States, then both China and the United States are counted as 1/2 points. Obviously share is more important than counting, so the natural index mentioned below refers to the share of papers by default.

In the latest 2019 Natural Index National Ranking (

), the first place is the United States, 20152.48 , The second is China, 13566.11, and the third is Germany, 4545.7. The United States is 1.49 times that of China, and China is 2.98 times that of Germany. The fourth to tenth places are the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Canada, Switzerland, South Korea and Australia.

The top ten countries in the nature index in 2019 (

)

Compared with 2018, the top ten countries and order are the same . In fact, since the introduction of the Nature Index, the top three countries have always been the United States, China and Germany, and they have not changed. It's just that the UK and Japan alternate in fourth place, and the competition is fierce.

2

018

Top ten countries in the annual natural index

2013 natural The top ten countries in the index

When it was said that China's scientific research output was second only to the United States, the reaction of most people in the commentary was unbelief.

Typical comments

As the Tao Te Ching famously said: "The CorporalDao laughs, not laughing is not enough! "In six years, this gap has been reduced by more than half, from 3.6 times to 1.5 times. Now that China’s scientific research output is second only to the United States, there will be many more people who believe it.

In 2019, relative to 2018, China’s natural index rose by 15.4%, while the United States fell by 4.2%. If this trend continues, China may surpass the United States within a few years. Of course, This is just the first step in the Long March. When the total amount exceeds, what we pursue will become per capita.

201

9

The change rate of the top ten countries in the annual natural index

The disciplines of natural index analysis are divided into four fields: chemistry, earth and environmental sciences, life sciences, and physical sciences. Please note that there is no mathematics. These four fields constitute natural sciences in a narrow sense, that is, empirical sciences. They are In the final analysis, the correctness and wrongness of is judged by experiment, not by logical reasoning like mathematics. Below, let’s take a look at the country rankings in these four fields.

In chemistry In terms of, the top three are China, the United States, and Germany. Please note that in this field, China is higher than the United States and is 1.5 times that of the United States. This is consistent with the conclusions of other indicators such as "Research Frontiers" that I have introduced. China is now It is a superpower in chemistry. In fact, chemistry accounts for 57.6% of China’s entire natural index!

The top five countries in the Chemical Nature Index in 2019

In terms of geosciences, the top three are United States, China, United Kingdom.

2019 The top five countries in the Earth and Environmental Science Natural Index

In terms of physics, the top three are the United States, China, and Germany.

The top five countries in the Physical Science Natural Index in 2019 span>

In these two areas, the United States is 1.76 times and 1.35 times that of China, respectively.

In terms of biology, the top three It’s the United States, China, and the United Kingdom. In this area, the United States has a huge advantage, 5.7 times that of China, and the absolute value is also very high. In fact, biology is in the United States. The natural index contributed 44.8%.

2019 Life Science Nature Index Top 5 A country

So it can be seen that chemistry and biology are the two main battlefields of the natural index. China has achieved the second place in the world because of chemistry, and the United States has achieved the number one in the world because of biology. Life sciences are the field with the most debts in China, and the focus of catching up.

The top ten research institutions of the Nature Index in 2019

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The total natural index of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and its ranking by subject

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The second research institution is Harvard University (Harvard Univiersity) in the United States. Its value is 925.15, which is about half of that of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It ranks first in the world in the field of biology, and ranks 33rd, 30th, and 6th in chemistry, geology, and physics, respectively.

Harvard University’s total natural index Ranking by subject

The third research institution is Germany's Max Planck Society (Max Planck Society), Equivalent to the German Academy of Sciences. Its value is 764.83, which is about 42% of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Max Planck Society is also a research institution with a long history and a well-known reputation, ranking 5th, 44th, 4th and 2nd in chemistry, geology, biology and physics respectively.

The Max Planck Society of Nature Index totals and rankings by subject

Since the natural index was put forward, the top three research institutions have not changed. The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harvard University and Max Planck The society happens to be the three representatives of China, the United States and Europe. Further down, from fourth to seventh place are France’s National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), US’s Stanford University (Stanford University), US’s Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Germany’s Helmholtz National Research Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres (Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres).

The eighth place, the interesting thing is coming. It is the University of Science and Technology of China (University of Science and Technology of China) where I am. This is the first time a Chinese university has reached such a high position. Take a closer look. Among the first seven universities, only Harvard, Stanford, and MIT are the only three universities, so the University of Science and Technology ranks astonishing fourth among universities in the world.

The subject distribution of HKUST is also very interesting. Ranked second in the world in the field of chemistry, second only to the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In the fields of geosciences and physics, they are ranked 17th and 10th respectively. But in the biological field, I am very embarrassed, not even the top 100. This is also a microcosm of the entire Chinese scientific community!

University of Science and Technology of China’s total natural index and ranking by subject

span>

Introduction to Chinese Academy of Sciences

Introduction to universities

Further down, the ninth place is the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, and the tenth place is the Peking University in China. ). Compared with the top ten in 2018, HKUST and Oxford are new to the list, while the University of Cambridge in the UK and The University of Tokyo in Japan have been squeezed out.

After interpreting the natural index, let’s look at the American science and engineering indicators. These indicators are proposed by the National Science Board of the United States and published every two years.

2020 National Science Council Science And engineering index report

(

https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20201

)

Their main concern is the situation in the United States, and in many places they will also compare with other countries. Who is the most comparable to the United States? Of course it is China. Therefore, we will also see a lot of data from China in this report (pictures and data can be found in

https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20201/data

Download). Some of them are very interesting, share with you here.

Figure 11 in the report (

https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20201/global-r-d

), which lists the changes in R&D investment from 2000 to 2017. China is a steep upward line. In 2017, with 496 billion U.S. dollars, it was second only to the U.S. at 549 billion U.S. dollars. The US$430.1 billion of the entire EU is behind China.

Figure 1

1

Figure 12 shows that from 2000 to 2017, China accounted for 32% of the world's R&D expenditure growth. This ratio is higher than 20% in the US and 17% in the European Union, and is the highest in the world.

Figure 1

2

Figure 13 shows that from 2000 to 2017, China's average annual R&D expenditure growth rate was as high as 17.3%, which was also the highest in the world. The second place is South Korea’s 9.8%, the third place is India’s 8.0% (by 2015), the EU and the United States are 5.1% and 4.3% respectively.

Figure 1

3

Figure 15 shows the ratio of R&D expenditure to GDP, that is, R&D intensity. From 2000 to 2017, China's R&D intensity increased from 0.89% to 2.15%. This is a great improvement, but it is still lower than the US’s 2.81%, Japan’s 3.21% and South Korea’s 4.55%, and only slightly higher than the EU’s 1.97%. The most confusing thing on this chart is India. The R&D intensity in other regions is increasing at any rate, but India has dropped from 0.74% in 2000 to 0.62% in 2015.-Brother 3, are you serious? !

Figure 1

5

Figure 21 (

https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20201/global-science-and-technology-capabilities

) Shows the percentage of scientific and engineering papers from several major economies in the world. The papers counted here come from a database called Scopus, which includes more than 20,000 journals, instead of only counting papers from 82 first-class journals like the Nature Index.

Figure 2

1

From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of Chinese papers increased from 5% to 21%, surpassing the 17% of the United States in terms of the country , Ranking first in the world, only lower than 24% of the European Union. The total of these three giants reached 62%. The next three contributing more are India 5%, Japan 4% and South Korea 3%, and only 27% in the rest of the world. Russia, Brazil, Canada, Australia, etc. cannot help but ask: Are we not worthy to have names? !

Figure 22, here comes the most interesting part of the whole report. If it is said that China has published the most papers, many people will immediately say that these papers are all watered! How to answer this question? Of course, the natural index mentioned above is an answer, because the statistical papers there are all published in first-class journals. Here, the National Science Council of the United States designed another indicator.

Figure 2

2

If the number of citations of a paper ranks in the top 1%, it can be used as a proof of a good paper. Among all the top 1% of these cited papers, the percentage of a country is divided by the country’s percentage of all papers,It is equivalent to a measure of the quality of papers in this country. Let us call this index the paper quality index for the time being. By definition, the paper quality index for the entire world is 1. If a country’s paper quality index is greater than 1, it means that the average level of papers in this country is higher than the world average.

In 2016, the paper quality indexes of the United States and the European Union were 1.88 and 1.30, respectively. This is reasonable, and the two of them should obviously be greater than 1. So, how much is China?

I originally thought that in order to keep the value of the world at 1, the value of China should be less than 1. Unexpectedly, Figure 22 tells me that the value of China is 1.12! China is actually higher than 1! More specifically, over time, China has risen from 0.37 in 2000 to 1.12 in 2016.

This surprised me and felt very confused: the quality index of the world's three major paper producing areas is greater than 1, so who is less than 1? Everyone is above average, so who is entrusted with the glorious task of maintaining ecological balance?

Studying Figure 22 carefully, I finally figured out what was going on. The paper quality indexes of South Korea, Japan, and India are 1.02, 0.88, and 0.70, respectively. Although they are lower than China, they are still around 1. But don’t forget, there is an unnamed “other region” in the world.

Figure 21 tells us that the output of papers in other regions accounted for 27%. Figure 22 does not tell us the paper quality index of other regions, but based on the known data, it can be calculated that the top 1% papers in the United States, the European Union, China, India, Japan, and South Korea account for 31.96%, 31.2%, and 23.52 respectively. %, 3.5%, 3.52% and 3.06%, their sum is 96.76%. It can be seen that with 27% of the total papers in other regions, only 3.24% of the top 1% papers were produced. Dividing 3.24 by 27, the paper quality index of other regions is-0.12.

So we understand that compared with the Big Three in China, the United States and Europe, there is only a slight gap in the quality of papers, but those areas without names are cliffs compared to the Big Three. Style of decline. The papers in those areas are almost all parallel imports.

I told many experts and friends about this discovery, and they used their experience of reviewing manuscripts in certain countries to support it. For example, someone pointed out that after reviewing a paper in a certain country, it was purely irrigating. Upon inspection, it was found that many articles of the same content had been posted, and they were decisively rejected...You can think about it, which country is this? As a reminder, countries with large populations are often large irrigation countries.

This shows that there are many people in the world who have not yet learned how to do research. If these countries have relatively decent papers, most of them come from international cooperation. It is necessary for the old driver to take me!

Speaking of international cooperation, this is another topic in this report of the National Science Council (

https://ncses.nsf.gov /pubs/nsb20201/global-science-and-technology-capabilities

). Guess, which country does American scientists collaborate the most? The answer is China. In 2018, 39% of the papers in the United States were in international collaboration, of which 26% were in collaboration with China.

International cooperation of papers

The Natural Index website also has statistics on international cooperation (

). It can be seen that Chinese and American scientists cooperate most often with each other.

China’s top ten cooperative countries

America’s top ten cooperative countries

Even if the boss and the second are constantly fighting, the cooperation is still the most. This is a truth in the world.

The above are all subjectsResearch data, let’s look at some industrial data. Figure 24 shows the output of high-intensity R&D industries. What is a high-intensity R&D industry? The scope given here is: aircraft manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, computers, electronic and optical products, computer software, and scientific research and development. From 2003 to 2018, US output in these areas increased from US$570 billion to US$1,040 billion, but the share fell from 38% to 32%. At the same time, China's share increased from 6% to 21%.

Figure 2

4

Then, Figure 25 shows the output of medium and high R&D intensity industries. What is a medium-to-high R&D intensity industry? The scope given here is: chemical industry (excluding pharmaceuticals), transportation equipment (excluding airplanes), electric power and other mechanical equipment, information technology services, and scientific instruments. From 2003 to 2018, U.S. output in these areas increased from 600 billion U.S. dollars to 1,250 billion U.S. dollars, but the share dropped from 25% to 22%. At the same time, China's share has increased from 7% to 26%.

Figure 2

5

Now let’s look at the patent data. Figure 26 shows (

https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsb20201/invention-innovation-and-perceptions-of-science

), the Chinese patent family ( patent families) accounted for 49% of the world, and only 6.8% in the United States. This data surprised me, and I hurried to consult my friend and intellectual property expert Shen Yong.

Figure 2

6

First of all, what is a patent family?

Due to the geographical nature of patents, an enterprise often has to apply for multiple patents with basically the same content in different countries or regions. For example, a patent filed in China in a certain year can claim domestic priority in China within one year, enter the member states of the convention through the Paris Convention within one year, or pass the patent within 30 to 32 months. The Cooperation Treaty (PCT) entered the PCT member states. These patents related by priority are called patents in the same family.

The next question is that China accounts for nearly half of the patent family. What does it mean?

It shows that China has advantages in a series of emerging industries, and the enthusiasm of patent layout in these industries is much higher than that of traditional industries. It also shows that Chinese companies are already facing the global market, not just the domestic market.

Thank you very much for the explanation. In 2016, my friend Chen Jing, a member of the Institute of Wind and Cloud, wrote an article "Why is Japan, the number one in the top 100 innovative companies, unfavorable business operations?" ", it pointed out that Chinese companies suffered a loss in this selection because they had too few international patent applications. Only 4 years later, the situation is completely reversed, and China has become the most keen on applying for international patents!

This leads to the last indicator we want to introduce, PCT patents. On April 7, 2020, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) announced that China applied for 58,990 patents through the PCT system in 2019, surpassing 57,840 of the United States (from 1 to 58,990, China surpassed the United States in 27 years!) .

"In 2019, China ranks among the countries with the most international patent applications" WIPO website Screenshot

In 1993, China only submitted one patent application to the World Intellectual Property Organization. In 26 years, China has grown from 1 to nearly 60,000, becoming the number one in the world.

Video screenshots of international patent applications in various countries from 2005 to 2019

To sum up, multiple indicators show that China's technological strength is second only to the United States overall. In some indicators, it is not surprising that China has reached the first place. Future history will remember that this is an era of great catch-up and great progress.

Finally, welcome everyone to follow our account "Technology Yuanren". Xiongguan Mandao is really like iron, and now it's stepping forward from the beginning!

About the author:

Yuan Lanfeng, Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei National Microscale Material Science Associate researcher of the Research Center, President of the Society of Science and Technology and Strategy, Speaker of the "Science and Technology Yuanren" program, Standing Committee Member of the Anhui Science and Technology Association, selected as one of the Top Ten Science Communication Figures of "Dianzan·2018 Popular Science China", Weibo @University of Science and Technology HuNo return, know almost @Yuan Lanfeng().

About the author:

Yuan Lanfeng, Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei National Microscale Material Science Associate researcher of the Research Center, President of the Society of Science and Technology and Strategy, Speaker of the "Science and Technology Yuanren" program, Standing Committee Member of the Anhui Science and Technology Association, selected as one of the Top Ten Science Communication Figures of "Dianzan·2018 Popular Science China", Weibo @University of Science and Technology HuNo return, know almost @Yuan Lanfeng().

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