Russia is the largest country in the world!
Russia is a military power!
Russia is a country with a glorious history!
All these facts are universally recognized. Although many of the equally interesting facts hidden behind these facts are not well known, they can show the contemporary people a complete Russia.
Next, let the Russian translators talk about these interesting facts about Russia, her history and modernity, her nature and people!
1. Russia is the largest country in the world
Everyone knows that Russia has an area of 17,075,400 square kilometers.
How big is Russia? Let us give some examples!
The area of Russia is close to that of Pluto, 1.8 times that of the United States, 30 times that of Ukraine, 21.8 times that of Turkey, and 20 times that of France.
The area of Kostroma Oblast is equivalent to that of the Czech Republic, and the area of Arkhangelsk Oblast is equivalent to that of Germany.
The area of Kalinin (now Tver) is equivalent to Hungary, and the area of Yaroslavl is equivalent to Switzerland.
The area of the Kola Peninsula is equivalent to two Denmark.
The area of Novgorod Oblast is equivalent to Ireland, and the area of Komi Republic is equivalent to France.
The area of the Republic of Yakutia is equivalent to half of Western Europe.
2. The world’s largest active volcano—Klyuchev active volcano is located in Russia
Klyuchev active volcano (Ключевская Сопка) altitude At 4850 meters, its volcanic ash column is as high as 8000 meters, and its altitude will increase once every time it erupts.
The Klyuchev active volcano has erupted in the last 7,000 years.
3. The Saint Petersburg Metro is the deepest metro in the world
The Saint Petersburg Metro has an average depth of 100 meters and was opened to traffic in 1955.
Soon after it was built, it became famous all over the world as the most beautiful subway.
The St. Petersburg Admiralty Metro Station is one of the deepest metro stations in the world, with a depth of 86 meters.
4. Peter I once dreamed of making St. Petersburg "another Amsterdam"
It was Amsterdam and its canals that made Peter I The construction of the maritime city was amazed.
In the eighteenth century, the practical use of canals was to allow boats to travel unimpeded.
However, after the completion of this "Second Amsterdam", St. Petersburg, because it has a large number of canals and bridges, it is more like the water city Venice, which is famous for its architectural style and architectural skills, so it got a The informal name "Northern Venice".
The French traveler Théophile (
Gautier) first compared St. Petersburg to Venice in 1859.
The traveler wrote in his book "A Journey to Russia": Petersburg "is like northern Venice built on many islands, with many canals passing through the city."
5. The Trans-Siberian Railway (Транссибирская железнодорожная магистраль) was the longest railway in the world.
From 1891 to 1916, this railway was endless It was built for 25 years and cost the Russian treasury 1.5 billion rubles.
After the civil war, another 300 million rubles were spent on restoration and reconstruction.
6. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and the largest source of freshwater resources on the earth
The great miracle of Siberia — Lake Baikal is well known, but, There are still many amazing facts about Lake Baikal.Known: The total volume of water is 23.6 trillion cubic meters, which is equivalent to the Volga, Don, Dnieper, Yenisei, Ural, Ob, Ganges, Orinoco, Amazon, Thames, Seine The total annual runoff of world-famous rivers such as the Oder River and the Oder River.
There are a lot of fish here. We must catch all the fish from Lake Baikal and distribute them to all the people of Russia. Everyone can get more than 1 kilogram of fish.
The length of the shoreline of Lake Baikal is equivalent to the distance from Turkey to Moscow.
Lake Baikal is so huge that it can hold about a hundred seas of Azov.
7. Russia has an inland sea and eleven marginal seas belonging to three oceans b>
The eleven marginal seas are: the Baltic Sea, the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the Eastern Siberian Sea, the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, and the Okhotsk Sea The Sea of Ke, the Sea of Japan and the Black Sea.
8. Russia and the United States are only 4 kilometers away
In Russia, we often hear people say "Where is Russia, where is America", it seems The United States is very far away from Russia.
Actually, it’s only right for central Russia.
If the whole of Russia is only 4 kilometers away from the United States, that is, the Russian Ratmanov Island (острово Ратманова ) And the U.S. Little Deomed Island (Russian called остров Крузенштерна).
9. The oldest mountain in the world is in Russia
Located in the Karandas Mountain (гора Карандаш) in the Kusa District of Chelyabinsk Region ) Was formed 4.2 billion years ago, and the age of the earth is only 4.5 billion years.
The name "Карандаш" is derived from the transliteration "Кара-Таш" of the word "Blackstone" in Turkic.
This mountain is composed of a very rare black mineral-alien stone.
Kalandash Mountain is originally a part of the mantle, and it has protruded from the surface after several years.
Now, the height of this mountain is 600 meters.
10. The Moscow Kremlin is the largest surviving medieval castle in the world
The Moscow Kremlin is the largest surviving medieval castle in the world and the largest castle in Russia It is the largest and best-preserved castle still in use in Europe, with a total length of 2,235 meters.
11. The most famous weapon in the world is undoubtedly АК-47 (also known as "Kalash")
The number of АК-47 in the world The total number of all other automatic rifles is even more.
The best firearms in the world are known for their "reliability and simplicity."
By the way, the invention of Mikhail Kalashnikov (Михаил Калашников) was awarded the Red Star Medal and received 150,000 rubles Stalin prize.
At that time (1947), the money was definitely a huge sum of money, almost equivalent to the price of 10 brand new Victory cars (the car was sold at 16,000 each at the time). ruble).
There are approximately 100 million AK-47s in the world.
This is easy to calculate, because on average every 60 people in the world have an AK-47, which has been included in the book "Guinness World Records".
Few people know that the legendary firearms designer and inventor of "Kalash" spent nine months writing a letter to Kirill, Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church, expressing his The firearms he designed caused doubts about killing.
12. The Russians first discovered the Antarctic continent
The Antarctic continent at the southernmost tip of the earth is the Russian navigator Fabian Belingsgaard Jin (Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen
) and Mikhail Lazarev (Михаил Лазарев) discovered in 1820.
Prior to this, the hypothesis about the existence of the Antarctic continent often compared it to South America and Australia.
The navigator Antarctic expedition led by Bellings Gaojin and Lazarev conducted an investigation around the Antarctic ice sheet and confirmed the existence of the sixth continent.
13. The most famous computer game is Tetris (ie "Tetris")
This game is a Russian programmer Alexei Packett It was developed by Nov (Алексей Пажитнов) in 1985 using the Electronica 60 computer.
This game was first popular in the Soviet Union and was introduced to the West in 1986.
This is the first Soviet computer game to break through the "Iron Curtain" and spread to the West.
The developer of the game and the researcher of the Soviet Academy of Sciences Alexei Pakitnov Therefore, a computer and a house were awarded by the state.
Prior to 1996, the game revenues belonged to the Russian government until the establishment of The Tetris Company and Alexei Pakitnov began to assume the license management obligations, and the royalties belonged to him .
The game was officially recognized as a work of art, and the copy of the game was included in the Manhattan Museum of Modern Art in New York in 1984.
The game has been mentioned in the Guinness Book of World Records nine times.
A player was sentenced to four months’ imprisonment for refusing to turn off Tetris on an airplane. This is the most absurd record related to Tetris and can be called “obtained from computer games The longest sentence".
14. The samovar is one of the few inventions with unique Russian characteristics
The samovar has been basically replaced by electric tea kettles and electric stoves.
Today's samovar has become a luxury item and a collection used by collectors to invest in it.
Many people believe that the samovar is a real Russian invention, but utensils like the samovar were already well-known in ancient Rome, China, and Egypt.
15. The Russian Empire was once the largest mainland monarchy
The Russian Empire was once the third largest empire in the world after the British Empire and the Mongol Empire. , The territory extends from the Pacific Ocean in the east, the Baltic Sea in the west, the Black Sea in the south, and the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The motto of the Russian Empire is "God is with us!" («Съ нами Богъ!»).
After the Northern War, Russia proclaimed the establishment of an empire on October 22, 1721 (October 11 in the Julian calendar). At the request of the Russian Senator, Peter I accepted the all-Russian emperor and father of the nation’s Honorable.
The Soviet Union was once the largest socialist country in the history of the world.
16. The Hermitage Museum is one of the largest and oldest museums in the world
The Hermitage Museum (Эрмитаж) The collection of art works amounts to 3 million pieces, from the Stone Age to modern times.
If you look at each exhibit for one minute and 8 hours a day, it will take at least 25 years to look at all exhibits.
The curator of the Hermitage Museum has always been held by a man, but the collector of the first collection of the Hermitage Museum is actually a lady, and she is Ekaterina II. The Queen (Императрица Екатерина II).
What she has done for the Hermitage Museum may indeed be more than any of her descendants.
The items she buys are all feminine products, some are for buying, some are almost for fashion, but they are always related to national affairs.
Her capriciousness makes the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg a collection of works by art masters ranging from Rembrandt to Murillo, from Titian to Poussin, from Rubens to Van Dyck The glory and pride of the world.
17. Helicopter golf is a sport that the Russians came up with.
Of course, this kind of sport is less sporty and more like a million A rich man’s game for showing off his wealth.
Two helicopters, equipped with 4 meters long clubs, are used to hit two balls with a diameter of one meter.
There are five people in each team. One person is responsible for driving the aircraft, one person is responsible for hitting the ball, the third person is responsible for coordinating the movements of the first two people, and the other two are the substitutes for the batsman.
The rules of the game are quite simple, just hitting the ball with a cue, but at the same time it is very complicated. The cue weighs more than ten kilograms and the ball weighs more than 20 kilograms.
Some people say that this is a sport that combines golf, helicopter aerobatics and polo.
18. RussiaThere are at least 15 secret cities that can’t be found on the map
There are no road signs, and even foreigners are not allowed to approach them.
In addition, Russia now has 42 closed administrative districts (ЗАТО) surrounded by barbed wire, and there are often military patrols around them.
These cities are affiliated to the Russian Ministry of Defense (Министерство обороны), the Russian State Atomic Energy Corporation (Росатом) and the Russian National Aerospace Corporation (Роскосмос).
To enter these closed administrative areas, you must hold a special pass.
19. Moscow State University is the largest university building in the world and the most famous building in Moscow
The four corners of the back of the Moscow city flag are embroidered with The Kremlin (Кремль), the Cathedral of Christ the Savior (храм Христа Спасителя), the Church of St. Basil's Ascension (Собор Василия Блаженного), and Moscow University (МГУ), there are reasons.
It is worth mentioning that the foundation stone laying ceremony of Moscow University was held on April 12, 1949, 12 years before Gagarin traveled in space.
In 1990, the
Frankfurt Fair building was completed. Prior to this, the main building of Moscow University had been the tallest building in Europe.
20. The most expensive fish in the world was caught in Russia in 1927
The fishermen used to be in Tiha, a suburb of Belgorod. A sturgeon weighing 1227 kg was caught in the Yasosna River (Тихая Сосна), and from the body of the sturgeon a first-class fish roe weighing 245 kg was obtained. According to today’s market value, the value of this sturgeon It may be as high as $289,000.
21. Russia’s earliest country house (дача) appeared during the reign of Peter the Great in the 18th century
The country house is a purely Russian phenomenon. In many European languages, this country house is called dacha.
Some people think that at first it was not much like a country house, but more like the St. Petersburg suburban manor (усадьба) that the Tsar bestowed on his ministers. The derivative of the verb "давать" "дача" probably only came from this time. Started to use.
For more than a hundred years after that, the manor and country house were only the privileges of the nobility. Until the end of the nineteenth century, ordinary wealthy people were allowed to buy country houses, but at this time the "дача" was no longer Then there is a noble manor, but a suburban house that can be dismantled.
22. The first World Disarmament Conference was proposed by Tsar Nicholas II in The Hague in May 1899.
Nicholas II (Николай II) was also the one who initiated comprehensive disarmament.
He proposed that the financial and material resources used for excessive arms expansion and war preparations should be used to develop education and improve the well-being of the people.
European countries admire Nicholas II's magnanimity very much, but are negative about accepting the proposal.
The Bolsheviks also sneered at Nicholas II’s peace initiative, believing that it was nothing more than the selfishness of the tsar, the weakness of the tsarist system, and the backwardness of the Russian economy.
23. Before the October Revolution, Russia was one of the countries with the largest family population in the world
Russians once believed that there were only 8 children in a family. There are so few, 12 to 14 children are considered normal.
Nowadays, families with three children are considered multi-child families.
24. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the alcohol content of various alcoholic beverages in Russia was only 1% to 6%
The wine must be mixed with water according to the Greek custom.
Even if it is a holiday, you should not drink more than twice a month.
Not everyone has the right to drink imported alcohol.
Ivan Leidi (Иван Грозный) personally supervises the implementation of these systems, but he himself does not drink.
The edict to foreign ambassadors pointed out that the czar "observes the tatters, does not drink alcohol, hates drunkenness, and prohibits gatherings in Moscow to binge drinking."
Only the loyal guards of the Tsar were allowed to drink small amounts of alcohol in order to maintain the spirit of the army.
In the eighteenth century, Ivan the Terrible's prohibition was praised by Peter the Great (Петр Первый).
Three hundred years ago, in 1714, he created a "Drunken Hero Medal" (орден «За пьянство»).
In order to prevent the "medal" from being taken off, it must be secured with a chain.
The "Medal" weighs 6.8 kilograms (17 Russian pounds), which is not a chain on the "Medal".
Drunk people will be put on this "medal" and sent to the police station to punish them for excessive drinking.
Some materials say that this kind of "medal" has to be worn for a week.
25. Moscow’s gardens and parks are much larger than those of western cities
Ismailovo Park (Измайловский) built in 1931 парк) Formerly known as Stalin Park, it is one of the largest urban parks in the world. The park area is 15.34 square kilometers, six times the size of New York's Central Park.
A terrible thing happened in this park.
In 1995, a radioactive weapon, the so-called "dirty bomb", was discovered in the park.
The law enforcement agency found a container carrying radioactive cesium-137, and its location information was provided by Chechen militants.
The then Chechen "President" Dzhokhar Dudayev claimed: "What we show to the international community and Russia in Ismailovo Park is only a small part of the radioactive material we have. That's it".
26. Russia has more than one hundred different styles of resorts
Crimea resorts, Sochi resorts, Caucasus mineral water city resorts District Group, Nalchik Resort, Anapa Resort, Sergiyevsky Mineral Water City Resort and Belokuriha Resort are the main state-owned resorts. These resorts can be considered relatively large in foreign countries.
27. Russia has the largest reserves of natural gas, peat, forest, salt, drinking water, crab, sturgeon, tin, zinc, titanium, niobium, nickel, iron ore, diamond and silver in the world. Rich country
In addition, Russia's oil and gas extraction, crude steel, raw aluminum, and nitrogen fertilizer exports all rank first in the world.
28. Russia has a total of 109 national nature reserves
As of the end of 2013, Russia still has 103 national nature reserves still in operation , The total area is 27.38 million hectares (excluding water surface area).
In 2014, the Shaitantau National Nature Reserve (заповедник «Шайтан-Тау») was established.
The annexation of Crimea has increased the number of national nature reserves in Russia by six. Thus, as of the end of 2014, Russia had a total of 109 national nature reserves.
The first nature reserve in Russia was Barguzin Nature Reserve (Баргузинский заповедник) built on January 11, 1916.
In addition to the Barguzin Nature Reserve, Russia’s oldest nature reserves include the Astrakhan Nature Reserve (Астраханский заповедник, 1919) and the Ilmen Nature Reserve (Ильменский заповедник, 1920) and the Caucasus Nature Reserve (Кавказский заповедник, 1924).
Great Arctic Nature Reserve (Большой Арктический заповедник, more than 41,000 square kilometers), Komandor Nature Reserve (Командорский заповедник, more than 36,000 square kilometers) and Wrangel Island Nature Reserve (more than 36,000 square kilometers) «Остров Врангеля», more than 22,000 square kilometers) is a large-scale nature reserve in Russia.
Belogoriya Nature Reserve (заповедник «Белогорье» just over 21 square kilometers),
Terraces along the Oka River National Earth Biosphere Reserve (Приокско-Террасный госудый госудый госуды заповедник) and Galic Mountain Nature Reserve (заповедник «Галичья гора») are not in sizeA full 50 square kilometers, it is a small-scale nature reserve in Russia.
Most nature reserves are located in Krasnoyarsk, Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krai.
29. St. Petersburg has maintained the world's largest tram network record for many years
The St. Petersburg tram system was completed and opened to traffic on September 29, 1907.
By the end of the 1980s, the St. Petersburg tram network reached its largest scale and was included in the Guinness Book of World Records.
Beginning in the 1990s, the volume of St. Petersburg trams began to shrink, and many tram tracks were demolished. However, by 2002, the length of St. Petersburg tram lines was still more than 600 kilometers.
Since then this record was broken by the Melbourne Tram, Australia.
30. From the perspective of international law, Russia and Japan have been in a state of war since World War II.
Due to the ownership of the South Kuril Islands There are disputes on the issue, and the two countries have yet to sign a peace treaty.
Despite this, the relations between Russia and Japan are still said to be harmonious.
31. In 2005, Sergey Morozov, the governor of the Ulyanovsk region of Russia, declared September 12 as a pregnancy day and a rest day
The local residents did not live up to the good intentions of the lively governor. The result of this proposal exceeded everyone's expectations: in June 2006, the Ulyanovsk birth rate tripled year-on-year.
32. In May 1990, "The Communist Youth League Pravda" set a record of 22 million copies of a paper newspaper.
This record will probably not be Broke.
33. The largest forest in the world is the Siberian taiga (сибирская тайга)
The Siberian Taiga forest covers an area of 15 million kilometers, accounting for about 27% of the world's forest coverage.
Most of the virgin forests are coniferous forests, but also some broad-leaved forests.
The virgin forests of Siberia are vital to maintaining the earth’s oxygen balance.
The area of Siberian virgin forest is very large, but the fauna is still slightly scarce, but it is much more than the tundra fauna.
There are few above-ground social animals here, probably because the coniferous forest has affected the animals to notify each other of possible dangers that may occur nearby.
At the same time, Siberian taiga is very suitable for animal habitat. Many of the animals have never met humans. What they must beware of is the natural enemies in the animal world.
34. The oldest city in Russia is Derbent in Dagestan
Derbent (Дербент) has a long history of more than two thousand years and is one of the oldest existing cities in the world.
There are some findings that show that Derbent may have been inhabited for more than 5,000 years, but there is no evidence that Derbent, more than 5,000 years ago, was a city in the true sense, and at best a village.
Some people also think that these things found are just lost here by outsiders.
The city of Derbent is located on the coast of the Caspian Sea.
According to the classification of lakes, seas and oceans, if a body of water does not have an outlet to the world's oceans, it can only be considered a lake. So the Caspian Sea is just an inland lake, not a sea.
35. The Soviet Union’s military and paramilitary forces once ranked first in the world
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russia, as the successor to the entire Soviet Union, the military and The number of paramilitary forces ranks fifth in the world.
Nevertheless, in February 2016, US President Barack Obama said that the size of the Russian armed forces still ranks second in the world.
Based on the ranking results of the major rankings, Russia is still the country with the largest number of nuclear warheads in the world.
36. The corrugated iron roof used in the British Parliament is produced in Yekaterinburg
In addition, the frame of the Statue of Liberty in the United States is also made of metal produced here of.
37. Russia was once known as the spiritual and cultural successor of the Roman Empire
RussiaThe double-headed eagle on the Ross national emblem symbolizes the idea of the "Power Symphony" that combines imperial power and religious power in one, harmonious and complementary.
The word "Tsar" is derived from the word "Caesar".
38. The longest continuous land border in the world is the border between Russia and Kazakhstan
39. The emblem of Chelyabinsk is a camel
Historians have confirmed that Chelyabinsk used to be a must pass through the "Silk Road" connecting Europe and Asia, with developed trade.
At that time, Turkic people used to nomadic herder in these areas, and they all used camels, the strongest and most cold-resistant animals on the earth, for transportation.
At that time, camels were the most ideal means of transportation for trade, so the locals spoke highly of them, even embedding them on the city emblem.
By the way, in the Soviet Union, this city emblem was abolished and replaced by no animal images, only tractors and derricks.
However, a resolution was made in 1994 to require the design of a new city emblem on the basis of the old one.
In fact, the new city emblem plan was not approved until 2001, but the camel image reappeared on the city emblem.
40. Vasyugan swamp is Russia and the largest swamp in the world
Vasyugan Marsh (Васюганское Болото) is located in the middle of the Siberian Federal District, between the Ob and Irtysh Rivers.
Most of this unique natural belt is located in Tomsk Oblast, and the rest are in Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region.
The Vasyugan Swamp is 570 kilometers long and 320 kilometers wide, with an area of 53,000-55,000 square kilometers, which is larger than Switzerland, Denmark, Estonia and other European countries.
According to scientists' estimates, the area began to be swamped about 10,000 years ago and has continued to this day.
In the past 500 years, the marsh area has tripled.
The main function of the swamp is to purify the air, so it is called the "kidney of nature".
The peat swamps of Siberia can absorb toxic substances, complex carbon, increase the oxygen content of the air, and prevent the greenhouse effect.