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A New Look at the Differences in the Study of Pronouns in Ancient Chinese _ The Analects

Release Time:2021-07-15 Topic:Stock Exchange Reading:17 Navigation:Stock Liao information > Culture > A New Look at the Differences in the Study of Pronouns in Ancient Chinese _ The Analects phone-reading

Speaking of tarnished, can not be done. ("Daya·Suppression")

In the year of Vance, he was influenced by the heavens. ("Daya·Xiawu")

I ask for thousands of warehouses, but I ask for Vance boxes. ("Xiaoya·Futian")

After the "Book of Songs", "Si" in the Lu dialect was once popular, represented by "The Analects". In the Analects of Confucius, when "S" is used as a demonstrative pronoun, it is mainly used as the object and attributive in the sentence. Examples of "S" as the object are as follows:

Zuozi told him that he was in Si and so in Si. ("The Analects of Confucius: Wei Linggong")

Committing a crime and not correcting it My friend of the past. Try to engage in Yu Sizhen. ("The Analects of Analects·Tab")

Examples of attributives are:

Say: "If you die, you will kill the husband! There are people who are sick, and there are diseases! Yeah, but there are some diseases!" ("The Analects of Confucius")

Yan Yuan said: "Although the Hui is not sensitive, please tell me something." ("The Analects of Confucius · Yan Yuan")

Simin, the reason why the three generations went straight. ("The Analects: Wei Linggong")

Huang Shengzhang (1983) once mentioned: "'Si' is rarely used in the nominative case. There are only two in the "Analects", which is still inverted, meaning Shangshi is the object of the subsequent verb." 2[10]149 However, according to our investigation, there are not only two examples of "S" as the subject in the Analects. The following examples should also be "S" as the subject. Situation:

The king's way, beauty is beauty. ("The Analects of Confucius · Xueer")

Is it profitable for the benefit of the people, but not for the benefit of others? ("The Analects of Confucius · Yao Yue")

There are no gentlemen , No big, no daring to slow, not too arrogant and not arrogant? ("The Analects of Confucius Yao Yue")

A gentleman straightens his clothes, respects him and looks at him, just like people are afraid of him. Is Si not too powerful but not fierce? ("The Analects of Confucius Yao Yue")

In addition, we investigated the syntactic function of the demonstrative pronoun "Si" in the entire ancient period (Table 1), "Si" is used The situation in the nominative case is more common:

Sorrowful, guilty person; Yile, compliant person, Shishizhi is tied to it. ("Liezi·Yang Zhu")

Can be considered, can be solid, the one who can improve, and the saint. ("Xunzi's Theory of Li")

Although it is cruel, Si called his position. ("Historical Records · Biography of Cool Officials")

The husband saves the people in indulging in, honours the supreme Huude, opposes the declining tombs of the world, and after the Zhou family's desperate career, Sin is the emperor's urgent task. ("Historical Records · Biography of Sima Xiangru"

According to our investigation, "Si" is not used as a demonstrative pronoun in "Zuo Zhuan". He Leshi summarized it in "The Study of Zuo Zhuan's Grammar" The usage of "Si" in "Zuo Zhuan". He believes that there are 2 cases of using "Si" as demonstrative pronoun in "Zuo Zhuan":

Just widowed. (Thirteenth year of Chenggong)

Tianyi Qiji. Wuzi, every public is to Deng, so Xingsi almost came out. I was ridiculed. (The tenth year of Zhaogong)

He Leshi’s interpretation of these two example sentences is: "In'Si is to use' and'Si is to care','Si' is a pronoun, which means'this way','is to use' and'so to care' "Just', they are added together to form a phrase that connects the table." [11]177 We believe that the "si" in these two cases is not a demonstrative pronoun, and both express the three meanings of "nai and just". The first sentence can only Translated as "so I feel distressed", it does not mean "this" at all; the second sentence should be translated as "the demon star appeared at this time". But here the demonstrative pronoun "is" should be used to indicate "this time" , "S" can only be an adverb, will "then you care"It is not appropriate to interpret it as "just".

Table 1 Syntactic function of the demonstrative pronoun "Si" in ancient times

(2) About the recent Distinguishing the differences in the study of the demonstrative "Shi (Shi)"

"Shi (Shi)" is also a typical pronoun in ancient times. There are relatively many controversies about "Yes(Time)", which are mainly reflected in two aspects: (1) Is "Yes" a proximal or distant demonstrative pronoun; (2) What is "Yes" and "Time" relationship.

Regarding the issue of "being" referring to near and far, there are roughly three views: Ma Jianzhong (1983), Yang Shuda (1930), Wang Li (1958), Zhou Fagao (1959), Huang Shengzhang (1983) ), Cui Libin (2004), Yang Bojun, He Leshi (1992), Li Zuofeng (2003), Zhang Yujin (2006), etc. as representative pronoun theory; taking Xiaochuan Fangshu (1981), Lu Shuxiang (1944), Feng Zheng (1987) The theory of middle demonstrative pronouns represented by Guo Xiliang (1989), etc.; and the theory of concurrent demonstrative pronouns (pronouns that can refer to both near and far) represented by Hong Bo (1991). Which type of demonstrative pronoun should "Yes" be classified as?

"Guang Ya": "Yes, this also." [12] 15 "Bo Ya": "Yes, this also." "Source ": "Yes, knowing the word. "Shuowen":'Yes, Zhiye. Congri, Zheng. The word'Yes' that can be confirmed was found in the early Western Zhou Dynasty (or thought that the word'Yes' already existed in Oracle bone inscriptions)." [13] 111 "Words": "When the paper is cut, the sound is on the right side, the straight side is straight, and the reverse is not." [14] 449 "Zhengzitong": "Time is cut, sound waiter, this is also. It is true, it is straight, and it is not the other way around." [15]956 "Chinese Character Origin Dictionary": "Yes, it is often used as a pronoun in ancient times to express this and this." [16] 840 Almost all ancient rhymes and calligraphy books are The interpretation of "Yes" with "here" shows that the meaning and usage of "Yes" and "here" should be very close.

In addition, from the phonetic point of view, in ancient times, "Yes" was the third-class character of the zodiac, which belonged to the orthodontic sound, and "this", "S" and "Here" were all the third-class characters of the refined series, which belonged to the tooth head. Sound, the initials of the two lines are very close in ancient times.

At the same time, let’s take a look at Guo Xiliang's (1989) reason why it is inappropriate to use proximity to understand “yes”.

Guo Shi put forward: "Wang Yinzhi said in "Jing Chuan Shi Ci":'It's Yufu.' It can be seen that he is regarded as a far-referential pronoun." [1] 92 But in fact When Wang Yinzhi discussed "Yes" in "Jing Zhuan Shi Ci", he first quoted the annotations in "Guang Ya": ""Guang Ya" said:'Yes, this is also.' Common language." [17 ] After 202, he put forward: "Yes, yes, yes." "Yes, yes, yes." "Yes, yes, yes." "Yes, yes, yes." "Yes, It’s still “husband”.” [17] 2202-203 It can be seen that in Wang Yinzhi’s view, “is, this, it, Huh, so, and husband” are synonymous with each other. Since “husband” and “this "Zhi" is synonymous, so how can it be said that Wang believes that "Yes" is also a far-referential pronoun? Guo Xiliang obviously violated the taboo of taking meaning out of context.

In addition, we read some commentary materials of ancient books, and all commented "Yes" as "This also", for example:

Ziqian asked Yu Zigong: Master is so The state must listen to its politics; seek and suppress it.

"On Semantics": "Yes, this is also." [18]Volume 1, 10

Zi said: On the truth is and, the gentleman is more? Confucius said: Talking about being a man has no choice in words, a gentleman has no choice in his body, and a person who is obsessed with beauty is not evil and strict.

"The Analects of Confucius Bi Jie": "Han said: Kong loses its meaning, I say it is discussed by the critics; true, extremely; yes, this is also." [19]16

To sum up, we believe that "being" should be classified as a proximal pronoun.

Many predecessors have talked about the relationship between "Yes" and "Time" in ancient times. Mei Yingzuo's "Zihui": "Shi, benevolence, sound key, four o'clock, twelve o'clock. It is also, Yu Shu: but the time is magnificent. And wait for it, "The Analects": Confucius is always the same." [14] 450 Wang Yinzhi "Jing Zhuan Shi Ci": ""Er Ya" said:'Time is also.' "Shu·Yao Dian" said:'Limin changes when the time is Yong.'" [17]203 Hao Yixing" "Er Ya Yi Shu": "Time ---'is' sound is frivolous and frivolous. The ancients said that'is' is'time','time' is a sound, and'time' is a righteousness. "[20]160 "Chinese Dictionary": "Time, pronoun, which means near denotation, equivalent to'this' and'this'."Erya·Shiguxia: ‘When, yes. ""[ 21 ]1613 Pan Yunzhong’s "Summary of Chinese Grammar History" pointed out: "Shi, and ‘is’ have the same sound and meaning, which are found in "Poems" and "Books". "[ 22 ]92 Pan discusses the relationship between "Shi" and "Shi" from the perspective of phonology: "The characters that get the sound from "Shi" such as "Ti", "Ti", "Dike", etc., from the perspective of "Shi" and "Shi". Words such as'special','wait','wait' and so on, are all tongue sounds. In ancient times, the ‘yes’ and the ‘time’ were false, that is, their proof. "[ 22 ]93

Of course, some scholars hold different opinions. Feng Zheng (1987) pointed out: "In ancient Chinese,'time' is a near sign,'is' is a middle finger, and'fuqi' (or 'Biqi') means far. "[ 23] 38-40 Obviously, Feng believes that "yes" and "time" are not the same word in ancient times.

There is a language phenomenon that can explain some problems, that is: "Shang Shu" Many places where "time" is used in "Historical Records" are replaced with "is", for example:


Xian Ruo Shi, but the emperor is difficult .(Gao Tao Mo)

In time of mourning, I and you are all dead. (Tang Oath)

"Historical Records"

Difficult? (Xia Benji)

When is the day and when the mourning, both the girl and the girl die. (Yin Benji)

It’s no wonder Huang Shengzhang (1983) thinks: "' The word "Shi" is the predecessor of the word "Yes". "[ 10 ]137 It should be said that most scholars believe that the demonstrative pronouns "being" and "shi" are synonymous in ancient times, and the two can be substituted for each other.

It is worth noting that except for "shi" In addition, "Shi" was originally written as "Huh", and the ancients sometimes used "Shi" instead of "Yes." Jin Guopu's "Er Ya Shu": "Time, Huh, yes. "The Story of Gongyang" said: Who is the one who comes? It is also. Whispering stone. (Sparse) Shi Huh is also. Said: Yes, that's it. "[24] Volume 2, 37 Wang Yinzhi also pointed out in "Jing Zhuan Shi Ci": ""Er Ya" said:'Hey, yes. ‘‘Huh’ is synonymous with ‘is’. Therefore, "Qin Oath": ‘is able to tolerate it. ""University": "It's a confession. "Jing Zhuan" is used as a "real" person, borrowing the word ear. "[17]204 Pan Yunzhong also mentioned the relationship between "Shi" and "Huh" in his "Summary of Chinese Grammar History": "'Huh' is the transliteration of'Yes', "Guang Yun": regular job cut. There are not many use cases in the pre-Qin classics. "[22]93 Lu Zhiwei (1985) also mentioned the relationship between "is" and "real", but he believed that Jiang said: "Yes. Huai and An is truly defeated. "[ 25] The "real" in the sentence 48 has the meaning of "this" and "this is", which are demonstrative pronouns. We believe that the "real" here has no demonstrative meaning, but should be the meaning of "real and certain". Hong Bo (2010) pointed out the phrase "real groaning, real acres, real borrowing" in "The Book of Songs". Zheng "Jian" stated: "'Real' is treated as'Huh', and Zhao Weizhidong's'real' and'Huh' are in the same voice. "Is "'Shi','Shi', and'Huh' are the proof of one word". [26]67 Therefore, we regard the cases of "Shi" and "Shi" in ancient times as demonstrative pronouns. Count together.

According to Huang Shengzhang (1983) statistics, "Shangshu" used as a demonstrative pronoun'Shi' appears much more often than'Shi'. The word ‘yes’ is used 29 times, most of which are used as imaginary words for inverted objects, as in the example of ‘the king of Shang is only used by his wife’s words’. Secondly, ‘yes’ is used as ‘Huh’ and ‘real’ (for example, ‘is capable of containing it. The "University" is used as ‘Huh’). It can be clearly known only 4 times when used as a pronoun. The "Shi" used as demonstrative words in "The Book of Songs" is less than in "Shang Shu", but "So" is also used as "Yushi""[ 10 ]144.

Huang's basically the early antiquity The use of "Yes" and "Shi" has been summarized. We also found the usage of "Shi" to mean "Yes" in "Zuo Zhuan":

Chen Wenzhi, ghosts and gods are not human True relatives, only virtue is to rely on. (Five years of Xi Gong)

"Jing Chuan Shi Ci": "Reality, also yes, intertextual ears. "[ 17 ]202

It can be seen that in the ancient times, "Yes", "Time" and "real" belong to the same word and can be replaced synonymously. It is worth noting that the usage of "Time" as a demonstrative pronoun There were still sporadic use cases until the period of "Historical Records":

The people of the time were extremely sturdy. Don't be insulted and fearful and clever. ("Historical Records · Song Weizi Family")

A woman can’t make someone better than her family, and the people of the time are sceptical. ("Historical Records of the Song Weizi Family")

The person who is divination at once, and the three of them are based on the words of the two. ("Historical Records of the Song Weizi Family") ")

Yang Bojun and He Leshi pointed out in "Ancient Chinese Grammar and Its Development": "'is' is used asThe subject is the most, and the object is the second. Although not as many as the first two, there are a certain number of attributives. "[ 27] The conclusion of 147 is biased. We investigated the use of the demonstrative pronoun "Shi" in "Zuo Zhuan" and found that there were 743 cases of "Shi" as demonstrative pronoun in Zuo Zhuan4, which are extremely large. Most "bes" are used as objects in sentences. It can be seen that the main syntactic function of "being" in Zuo Zhuan is the object of "being." We refer to Guo Xiliang (2005) for the use of "being" in ten books such as Shang Shu According to statistics, it is found that in Shang Shu, The Book of Songs, Gongyang Zhuan, and the Analects, the situation where "is" is used as an object is absolutely dominant. Only in "Mencius", "Mozi" and "Xunzi" "is" is used as the subject The situation gradually surpassed the situation as the object. It can be said that in the early antiquity period, "Yes" was mainly used as the object. Let's take the use of "Yes" in "Zuo Zhuan" as an example to illustrate this point.

The demonstrative pronoun "Shi" in "Zuo Zhuan" is mainly used as an object in the preposition structure. There are 401 examples of such example sentences, such as:

Guo Gongjue, Wang Yuzhijue. Zheng Boyu is Evil begins with the king. (The twenty-first year of Lord Zhuang)

At the beginning, Liji's rebellion cursed the son of no herd, and he became the no-gong clan of Jin. (The second year of Xuangong)

It is worth noting that in the case of "being" as the object of the preposition, there are 169 cases of "Yes"5[ 28 ]142, for example:

Autumn, the teacher is still. The gentleman is based on good luck Zhuang Gong. (The eighth year of Zhuang Gong)

Jin Hou searched on Mian to rule the army, and the envoy General Zhongjun said: "Bo You Chang. The former ministers are accustomed to the wise men, so they are not capable of being virtuous. Please swim from Bo. "(Xianggong thirteenth year)

There are only 40 examples of examples used as objects in the verb-object structure, for example:

Uncle Sun Zhiying said: "Although it is evil, it can go Almost?" It’s the one who has seen it. (The first year of Zhao AD)

The inevitable crime is that the remaining will kill the daughter. (Ding Gong four years)

At the beginning, Wei Wuzi had a concubine, No child. Wu Ziji, Mingke said: "You must marry. "(Xuangong fifteenth year)

There are 219 example sentences with "Yes" as the subject, for example:

The needle said: "Is not a couple." To blame his ancestors and to be indecent, why can I be nurturing?" (Yin Gong eight years)

Gong said: "It is better to kill them, you can't whip them. Nun is powerful, able to cast over Jimen. "(The thirty-two year of Zhuanggong)

In the spring of sixteen years, the meteorite was in the fifth song of the Song Dynasty, and the meteorite was also the meteorite. The six salty retreated and flew over the capital of Song Dynasty, and the wind was also. In the Zhou Dynasty, Shi Shuxing was hired by Song Dynasty, and Song Xianggong asked Yan. , Said: "Is it Xiangya? Good or bad?" (Sixteenth year of Xi Gong)

(3) Discrimination of the differences in the study of the proximal pronoun "I"

It is generally believed that "Yi" is a personal pronoun, and most academic circles only classify it into the category of personal pronouns for discussion. However, "Yi" originally appeared as a demonstrative pronoun, but it appeared for a short time. "Chinese Pronouns" clearly pointed out: "'Yi' is a demonstrative word in the pre-Qin Dynasty, such as'the so-called Yiren, in the water side' (Qin Feng·Jianjia). "[ 29 ]17

Regarding the nature of "Yi", the views of scholars are also inconsistent. There are roughly three views as follows:

First, it is considered to be a pronoun, It is represented by Huang Shengzhang (1983). In addition, in some dictionaries, "Yi" is also included in the near demonstrative pronouns. For example, the definition of "Yi" as a demonstrative pronoun in the "Chinese Dictionary" is: means near Refers to, equivalent to "this" and "this". [21]159 The interpretation of the demonstrative pronoun "Yi" in "Zhonghua Zihai" is: this, this. [30] 68 The interpretation of the demonstrative pronoun "Yi" in "Ziyuan" is : Borrowed as a near demonstrative pronoun, it is equivalent to "This" and "This". [13 ]700-701

Secondly, it is considered to be a distant demonstrative pronoun. In "Wang Li Gu Chinese Dictionary", it is correct for " The "Yiren" in the so-called Yiren is on the side of the water discussed: Yiren is still talking about the other person. "Poetry·Qinfeng·Jianjia": "The so-called Yiren is on the side of the water. "Zhu Xi's Collected Biography: "Iren, I still speak of the other person." "[31]20 The definition of the demonstrative pronoun "I" in "Zhengzitong" is: Yi, Biye. And put forward: ""Poetry·Qinfeng": the so-called Yiren. "Jian" says that ‘Yi’ is regarded as Yan, and ‘Yuan’ is still true and wrong. "[15]31 Zhang Yujin also discussed the nature of "Yi" in "Yiren" in his "Study on Chinese Pronouns in Western Zhou Dynasty". Zhang pointed out: "When a poet uses'Yiren' to refer to the person he misses, "Yiren" 'Not by the poet's side, but in the distance of'seeing but not possible'. When using pronouns, you can only use far-referential pronouns. "[31]286 It can be seen that Zhang Yujin also believes that "Yi" is a far demonstrative pronoun.

Third, he thinks that it can express near or far. "Han""Ziyuanliu Dictionary": means near denotation, equivalent to "this" or "this": the worry of the heart, self-admiration. It also means the far finger, which is equivalent to "that" and "that": Jianjia is pale, white dew is frost; the so-called Yiren is on the side of the water. [16] 288 The Ancient Chinese Function Word Dictionary compiled by the Ancient Chinese Research Office (1999) of the Institute of Linguistics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (1999) also believes that: "'Yi' is used in front of nouns to indicate far or near. Translated as'that','these','this','this', etc." [32]704 Then, what is the nature of the demonstrative pronoun "I"?

According to our investigation, the ancient times "Yi" as a demonstrative pronoun only appeared in the "Book of Songs". There are 10 examples of such examples. 6[ 34] 285 In this case, the nature of "Yi" should also be summarized from the usage of "Yi" in these 10 example sentences. The following are examples of "I" as a demonstrative pronoun in "The Book of Songs". There are 8 examples of "I" as an attributive in the sentence, for example:

(Guofeng·Beifeng·Xiong's pheasant)

The worry of the heart, I praise Yiqi. (Xiaoya·Xiaoming)

The so-called Yiren is on the water side. (Guofeng·Qinfeng·Jianjia)

The so-called Yiren, Yu Yan Jiake? (Xiaoya·Baiju)

There are 2 cases as the subject:

Wei Shi and her daughter, Yiqi will be cheating, and they will be given a spoon of medicine. (Guo Feng·Zheng Feng·Qin Wei)

You are not to be afraid, and Yi Kehuai is also. (Guofeng·Binfeng·Dongshan)

In the first example sentence, "Zi Yi Yi block" means "I leave this obstacle to myself", and "I" here is obviously a near denoting pronoun; In the two example sentences, "Self-praiseyiqi" means "I leave this pain for myself", and it is in opposition to "bi" in the next sentence; the next 6 example sentences are all "Yiren", we think " The so-called Yiren” should refer to “the person I miss”, “I am in love with each other, and I still beg for friends. I don’t want friends to be friends?” It means “to look at the bird carefully, but I still want friends to have a blind date. What's more How can we people know that friendship is important." Obviously the opposition between "Biniao" and "Yiren", "Yi" can only be used as a pronoun here. Among the two example sentences with "Yi" as the subject, the first example sentence "Yi" and "its" are pronoun antonyms used together, which means "mutually, each other". The "I" in the latter example expresses "this situation", which is also similar. Pronouns. Therefore, we believe that "I" should be a pronoun.

(4) Discrimination of the differences in the research on the similarities and differences between "this" and "shi".

Ma Jianzhong mentioned the demonstrative pronouns "shi" and "this" in "Ma Shi Wen Tong". "The difference: "Whenever you speak of the past, you don’t have to go through the present, but you can refer to it with the word “is”; if the former is tangible, it is near and can be referred to, the word “this” is used. Refer to it."[29]53 Yang Shuda refuted this view in "Ma Shi Wen Tong Kan Mi", thinking that there is no such difference between "this" and "is". Statistics on the use of "this" and "this" have revealed that there really is no such difference between "this" and "this" on this issue. What Ma said should also be an individual case.

Wang Li once pointed out in "Chinese Grammar Theory": "There is a subtle difference between'Shi' and'Zi' in the Pre-Qin Dynasty: when it refers to things,'Zi' and'Shi' can be single However, when it refers to people, the word'is' is often used, and the word'this' is rarely used." [33]298 In order to verify this conclusion, we analyzed the "this" and "Yes" in ten important documents of the pre-Qin period. The usage of referring to people has been investigated (Table 2), and it can be found that "this" was used to refer to people in the pre-Qin period more commonly, and it is not uncommon to refer to people alone. "The Book of Songs", "Guoyu", and "Zuo Zhuan" There are many use cases in "Mencius", "Xunzi", "Zhuangzi" and other documents. For example:

Xiang Gong said: "Huan, this is his grandson. But who is not the one who is the deity?" ("Guoyu·Zhouyu")

Cao Bo Said: "There are so many dead sons of the princes, who can't do it! The dead are rude." ("Mandarin·Jin language")

For the song "Wei", said: "Beautiful !Big and graceful, dangerous and easy to do, with virtue to supplement this, the master is also known." ("Zuo Zhuan·Xianggong Twenty-Nine Years")

The defender said: "This It’s not my monarch, how does his voice resemble me?'There is no other, but it is similar." ("Mencius·Zhenxinzhangjushang")

The Ai Gong said: "However, the husband Zhang Fu Yiqi, The gentry leads and picks up the temple, is this virtuous?" ("Xunzi·Aigong")

All of these are based on their advantages and their disadvantages. However, the world is called virtuous Yan, you can have it. Xing reputation also. ("Zhuangzi·Miscellaneous Chapter·Daoye"

Although both "Yes" and "This" can be usedCome to refer to people, but obviously in the pre-Qin period, "Yes" is more commonly used to refer to people than "This", and there is a slight difference between the two when referring to people: "Yes" refers to people when they mostly appear alone, and "This" refers to people when they are human. More appearing in the form of "this + noun", "this" is used as the attributive in the sentence.

It can be found that 80% of the pre-Qin period "yes" was used solely for people. For example:

In winter, Chu Zi is hired more and more, and he is proud of his money. Uncle Shu Zhonghui said: "It is bound to be destroyed like the Ao family. Proud its first emperor, God is Fu Fu." ("Zuo Zhuan·The Nine Years of Wengong")

In the beginning, Wei Wuzi had you Concubine, childless. Wu Ziji, Mingjie said: "You must marry." ("Zuo Zhuan·Xuangong Fifteen Years")

It was Feng Fuye. Jin people have Feng women who are good at fighting tigers and die as good men. ("Mencius Full Heart Chapter and Sentences")

When Gong Wenxuan saw your teacher, he was shocked and said: "Who is it? Is it evil? Heaven and? Its person and?" He said: "Heaven is also not human Also. The life of the sky is to make the person alone, and the appearance of the person is different. So knowing the sky is not the person." ("Zhuangzi·Inner Chapter·The Master of Health Care")

"Yes" There are also cases in the form of "being + noun", but it is far less common than "being" used solely to refer to people. For example:

Wang Sui put it, and Wu is a woman, so that she will give birth to the uncle for the sake of the future. The life of heaven is useful for a long time, and its poison is also great, which will add to the desire for prostitution. ("Mandarin·Zhengyu")

It was conquered for the killing of a boy, and everyone in the world said: "It is not rich in the world, but it is a man who is a husband and a wife." ("Mencius·Teng Wengong Chapter Sentence")

It is not good for the princes of the world, but the son is only good; and the people of the world are not for it, but the sons do it alone. ("Xunzi·Jundao")

In contrast to "being", "this" refers to human beings and is more used in the form of "this + noun". For example:

When going out of the dynasty, I embraced the Zhao family, and suddenly said to Xuanzi: "The first emperor belongs to this son and belongs to the sons, saying:'This son is also talented, and I receive the gift of the son; No talent, my only son’s grievance. "Although the present monarch is final, the words are still in my ears, but how to abandon it?" ("Zuo Zhuan·The Seventh Year of Wengong")

It is Tang Zhuo Yin Xie, Wen Wang Zhu Pan Zhi , Zhou Gongzhu Shu Guan Shu, Tai Gong Zhu Huashi, Guan Zhongzhu Fu Li Yi, Zi Chan Zhu Deng Shi Fu, these seven sons are all different worlds and concentric. ("Xunzi·Youzao")

Today's husband thinks that he was born at the same time as himself and lives in the same country. At that time, right and wrong are also distinguished. ("Zhuangzi·Zipian·Taohu")

In the "Study of Chinese Historical Grammar", Hong Bo also analyzed the difference between "Shi" and "This": "'Shi' can be used for virtual denotation, and Without any restrictions, the use of'this' for virtual demonstratives can only be used in conjunction with other pronouns." [26] 121 However, when comparing the usage differences between "Yes" and "Of", they say: "When'is' is used as an object, only the actual usage is used, not the imaginary usage." [26]63 This is obviously suspected of inconsistency.

Table 2 "Yes" and "This" refer to the frequency distribution of human time in the pre-Qin period

"This" does only appear when it is used in opposition to other pronouns. For example:

The towns of the border areas, one after another, why are there always? Wang Bo's order also cited them to seal the borders, and the tree was the official. ("Zuo Zhuan·The First Year of Zhao AD")

However, according to our investigation, "Shi" in "Zuo Zhuan" is used as an object. For example:

Why are you so afraid? ("Zuo Zhuan·The Twenty-seventh Year of Xianggong")

In addition, Hong Bo (2010) also mentioned the pragmatic difference between "being" and "this": "'Shi' can be referred back to, You can also refer to the front, and'this', except for some exceptions in the Book of Songs, there are no cases where the front refers to the other 17 books." [26]124 According to our investigation, the pre-Qin " "This" can be referred to. For example:

Zhao's new genus is called "Pan Pian", and he must actually plan for this, and he will use his old self as a teacher. ("Zuo Zhuan · Twelve Years of Wengong")

Here, "this strategy" refers to "will teach with the old and me", and "this" appears in front of it.

Huang Shengzhang (1983) mentioned: "Since "The Analects", most of the usage of'this' and'is' are the same, in terms of indicating or restricting general things (time, place, people) There is no difference."[10]150 We summarized the frequently occurring situations of "Yes" and "Zi" in ancient times, and found that compared with "Yes", "Zi" is more used to indicate location. For example:

Calling: "Since there is no patient who will take the place of the monarch, there will beSlaughter!" ("Zuo Zhuan·The Second Year of Cheng Gong")

Gong Xie said: "Jie is here!" ("Zuo Zhuan·The Twenty-Three Years of Xiang Gong")

There are people here who can’t beat a young man, and they are powerless; today, if they lift a hundred jun, they are powerful people. ("Mencius·Gaozi Chapter Sentence")

"Yes "" and "this" can be used to represent time, but "yes" and "this" indicate the time when there is a semantic difference: "is the month" and "is the year" refers to the month and the month when the event happened. Year, and "this month" and "this year" refer to the month and year when you speak. The two are not interchangeable. For example:

is the month, the hexapod Song Du. ("Zuo Zhuan·Xi Gong Sixteen Years")

It is a year old, hungry but not harmful. ("Zuo Zhuan·Xi Gong 21 Years")

In six years and this month, Wu Qi entered Ying almost! In the end, it is also Falk. ("Zuo Zhuan·Thirty-one Years of Zhao Gong")

Oppositely: "I can see or not, here Years old. Fighting between Si and Remedy, the unknown is the result. If I have achieved something, I can see it and know it. "("The Thirty Years of Zuo Zhuan·Xiang Gong")

2. Discussion on the differences in the study of predicate pronouns in ancient Chinese

ancient Chinese Chinese predicate pronouns 7 mainly include 4 such as "ran", "er", "ruo", and "no". The difference from the uneven distribution of differences in the study of substantive pronouns is that predicate pronouns The differences in the research are all large. Let’s discuss the "ran", "er", "ruo" and "no" one by one.

(1) The differences in the study of the pronoun "ran" The Discrimination

The word "ran" does not appear in Oracle bone inscriptions and Western Zhou inscriptions. It first appeared in the Eastern Zhou inscriptions "Zhongshan King Ding". "Shuowen·Huobu": "Of course, burn also, from Fire, stern sound. "[34] 206 Duan Yucai "Shuowen Jiezi Zhu": "Of course, Tongjia is a word, preached as ‘so’, and ‘er’ is also a transposition. "[35] Volume 10, Chapter 818 "Rebuild Jade Chapter": "Of course, such as rotary cutting, burning, Xu Ye, so also. "[36]Volume Two One, 203

The usage of "ran" as a demonstrative pronoun is recognized by the academic circles. However, scholars disagree on the nature of the demonstrative pronoun "ran". There are three expressions of demonstrative, specific and middle finger.

The scholars who hold the specific referent are represented by Xiang Xi. He pointed out in the "Concise Chinese History": 'Ran' is different from near demonstrative pronouns and distant demonstrative pronouns. They all have the meaning of “so”, “such”, and “such”. We call them special demonstrative pronouns. "[ 37 ]64

The scholars who hold the middle finger argument are represented by Hong Bo. Hong Bo (1991) proposed that "ran" is the middle demonstrative pronoun.

In addition, most scholars still It is more acceptable to classify "ran" into the pronoun category of proximal pronouns. Yang Shuda classified "ran" into the meaning of "so" in the category of proximal pronouns in the "Higher Kingdom Grammar". Zhang Wenguo and Zhang Nengfu (2003) believe that "ran" is Near demonstrative pronouns. "Ancient Chinese Dictionary": "Demonstrative pronouns. So, this, that. "[ 38] The definition of "ran" in the 1307 "Chinese Character Source Dictionary" also pointed out its nature as a demonstrative pronoun: "It means near demonstrative, which is equivalent to ‘so’ and ‘so’. "[ 16 ]1476 "Guxunhui Compilation" in the interpretation of "ran" has 4 items as "Rule", 3 items as "Soya", and 5 items as "Yes". [39]1363 can be seen , "Ran" is more closely related to "Shi" and "This". The second definition of "Ran" in Wang Li's "Ancient Chinese Dictionary" is: "Demonstrative pronouns." This, that. "[31] After 660, Guo Xiliang (1989), Li Zuofeng (2003), Zhang Yujin (2006) further pointed out that "ran" is a predicate near demonstrative pronoun. Guo Xiliang mentioned in the article "On the System of Demonstrative Pronouns in Ancient Chinese" : "'Ran' was commonly used as a demonstrative pronoun in the pre-Qin period. The meaning is'so'. It is generally used as a predicate, and it is also used as an object in some works. It is obviously a predicate demonstrative pronoun. "[1]81 Li Zuofeng pointed out in "Pre-Qin Chinese Real Words": "The commonly used predicate denoting pronouns are: then, if, if, so, if this, such as these. "[40]253 Zhang Yujin believed in the book "Study on Chinese Pronouns in the Western Zhou Dynasty": "'ran' is a predicate pronoun. "[34]275 In summary, we can find that the proximal pronoun "ran" was often used as a predicate in ancient times, and it was a predicate near-referential pronoun with predicate attributes.

After investigating the use of "ran", it can be found that "ran" basically only used demonstrative pronouns at first, and onlyThe syntactic function as a predicate. There are 2 cases of "ran" in "Shangshu", and all of them are demonstrative pronouns:

I read Raul first before God and then Raul first, give Pikesiuer, use Wail, Ran. ("Shang Shu Shang Shu · Pan Geng Zhong")

Although it is so clear, Shang You inquires about the yellow hair, but he is stunned. ("Shangshu Zhoushu·Qin Oath")

After "Shangshu", "ran" developed the usage of substantive pronouns. In "Zhouyi", "ran" is often combined with "hou" , As an attributive in the sentence. However, "ran" was mainly used as a predicate in the early period of antiquity, and the predicate attribute was more obvious. There are 9 cases of the pronoun "ran" in "The Book of Songs", and all of them are used as predicates. For example:

She Yang She Yang, Gou is not. ("The Book of Songs·Cailing")

Knowing it, who is the same. ("Book of Songs·Tomb Gate")

Is it a picture of the study, how is it? ("Book of Songs·Changdi")

If you say yes, the ceremony is just. ("The Book of Songs·Xiaoya·The Turn of October")

You are far away, and the people are far away. ("Book of Songs·Jiao Gong")

In the period of "Zuo Zhuan" and "The Analects of Confucius", the syntactic function of "ran" was still dominated by the predicate. There were 116 cases of the pronoun "ran" in "Zuo Zhuan". Among them, 71 cases were used as predicates, 23 cases were used as the pronoun "ran" in "The Analects", and 13 cases were used as predicates. For example:

Where the princes have fate, they will tell the book, otherwise they will not. ("Zuo Zhuan · Yin Gong Eleven Years")

Say: "Why is it necessary to be an adult today? See Li Siyi, see danger and give orders, if you will not forget the words of your life for a long time, you can also be an adultCarry on." ("The Analects of Xianwen")

Fang Youguo pointed out in "Study on the Legalization of Pre-Qin Chinese Real Words": "'ran' was first borrowed as demonstrative pronouns, and then developed from demonstrative pronouns Conjunctions, word endings and other parts of speech and usage. The meaning and usage of substantive words such as'ran' and'right','correct', and expressing response have also developed from the demonstrative pronoun'ran'." [41]398 "Zuo Zhuan" "The Analects of Confucius" There are many examples in ancient literature such as "ran" which means "to", "correct", and "this is the case". We believe that in this case, "ran" is still a demonstrative pronoun. For example:

Uncle Wu said: "Yes. Why not call it?" Said: "Gu Jiang calls it." ("Zuo Zhuan·Ai Gong 27th Year)

Zi said: "Yong Zhi Yan Ran." (The Analects of Confucius Yong Ye Chapter)

Said: "Are the disciples of Lu Kongqiu and?" The opposite said: "Ran." ("The Analects of Confucius · Wei Zi Pian")

(2) Discrimination of the differences in the study of the proximal pronoun "Ruo"

The word "Ruo" has already appeared in the oracle bone inscriptions, "Suowen·Fubu": " Ruo, choose dishes. From , right. Right, right hand. One said: Du Ruo vanilla." [37] 18 There are big differences in the academic circles regarding the classification of the demonstrative pronoun "Ruo", and there are near denotations. Middle finger, far finger, predicate reference, and specific reference are five terms.

Hong Bo (1991) holds the middle demonstrative pronoun. He believes that "Ruo" is different from the typical near and distant demonstrative pronouns in semantic functions, so he proposed that "If" is the middle demonstrative pronoun. .

Huang Shengzhang, Shi Cunzhi, Pan Yunzhong and others who hold far-reaching pronouns are the representatives. Huang Shengzhang (1983) classified "Ruo" into the category of distant demonstrative pronouns, and pointed out: "'Ruo' is used as a pronoun, the inscription has appeared, and it is used as a pronoun. It was first seen in the "Analects of Confucius" and after the "Analects of Confucius", "Mozi" and "Gongyang Biography" also have their own examples, and there are few of them." [10] In the "Outline of Chinese Grammar History", Shi Cunzhi also believed that "Ruo" is a far demonstrative pronoun, and proposed: " 'Ruo','er' and'nai' belong to the mud mother, which should be the source of the modern far demonstrative pronoun'na'." [42] 118 Pan Yunzhong pointed out in the "Summary of Chinese Grammar History": "'That', 'Husband','bandit','qi','ruo', and'er' are far demonstrative pronouns." [22] 91 and thought: "'ruo' has been used as demonstrative pronouns or attributives in ancient times, but far refers to The boundary between the near finger and the near finger is not very clear; but as far as the phonetic system is concerned, it seems more reasonable to classify it as the far finger." [22] Pan Shi quoted Lu Shuxiang when discussing the relationship between "er", "ruo" and "na". Mentioned "It is very possible that "If" becomes "That""[43]154, I think Lu Shuxiang also holds the same opinion. But according to our investigation, what Lu Shuxiang pointed out in the book "Modern Chinese Demonstrative Pronouns" is that "'na' has nothing to do with the ancient remote demonstrative pronouns'bi' or'husband', but has nothing to do with the second pronoun'er'. It has something to do with "if""[29]153. It can be seen that Lu Shuxiang refers to the relationship between the second body pronouns "If" and "that", and does not mention the direct relationship between the demonstrative pronouns "If" and "that".

Holding special instructionsThe pronoun refers to Xiang Xi. In his "A Concise History of Chinese", he believes that "Ruo" is a specific pronoun, which is basically not accepted by the academic circles.

Guo Xiliang and his student Cui Libin are the ones who hold the predicate demonstrative pronouns. Guo Xiliang (1989) believes that "Ruo" is a predicate demonstrative pronoun. Cui Libin basically adopted Guo Xiliang's opinion and attributed "Ruo" to Into the category of predicate demonstrative pronouns. On this basis, Zhang Yujin further classified "Ruo" into the category of predicate pronouns. We agree with this view. Scholars who hold the theory of pronouns include Yang Shuda, Zhou Fagao, Wang Li, and Li Zuofeng. Yang Shuda classified "Ruo" in the "Germany of Higher Learning" into the category of "such" and "如Yes". Zhou Fagao classified "Ruo" into the category of proximal pronouns in "Ancient Chinese Grammar·Sheng Dai Pian". The definition of "Ruo" in Wang Li's "Ancient Chinese Dictionary" is: "Demonstrative pronouns. This, this, this." [31]1046 Li Zuofeng also proposed that "Ruo" is a near demonstrative pronoun in "Pre-Qin Chinese Real Words". According to our investigation, "Ruo" is proposed as the three meanings of demonstrative pronouns in "Guxunhui", and the three meanings are all "this also". [42]1916 "Ruo" was originally a verb used as a predicate, which means "obedience". After becoming a demonstrative pronoun, it still has certain predicate properties. Therefore, we believe that "If" should be a predicate pronoun.

Regarding the literature where the demonstrative pronoun "Ruo" first appeared in the literature, the academic circles are also inconsistent. Huang Shengzhang (1983) believed that "Ruo" was used as a pronoun, which was first seen in "The Analects". Fang Youguo believes that the use of "Ruo" as a demonstrative pronoun first appeared in "Shangshu", and we agree with this view. In "Shangshu", "If" has been used as a pronoun, and "If" is often used as an attributive in the sentence. For example:

Only Wen Wang, Shang Kexiu and I have summer; and only if you are uncle Guo, if you are Hongyao, if you are scattered, you can live, if you are Taidian, and if you are Nangongkuo. ("Shangshu·Junshi")

Guo Xiliang (1989) pointed out: "The demonstrative pronoun ‘ruo’ is only used as an attributive." [1] This is not true. In fact, "Ruo" in Shangshu is also used as an adverbial in a sentence. For example:

Erwei old man, Erpi Keyuan province, Erzhi Ning Wang Ruo Qin Zai! I have succeeded in the Institute of Tian Zhi, I dare not succumb to the king of Ning. ("Shangshu·Daguo")

Wang Ruo said: "Ge you all, tell you to teach you, you are the heart, and there is no arrogance and kang. ("Shangshu·Pangeng Part 1)


The "If" in the first example is translated here as "so, this" to modify "Diligent"; the "If" in the second example is translated as "so, like" to modify "words".

"Wang Ruoyue" first appeared in "Shangshu", and later it was often seen in the inscriptions and ancient books of the Zhou Dynasty. It has always attracted the attention of scholars. Cai Shen mentioned in his "Book Collection" in the Southern Song Dynasty : "If you say it, it's not what it said at the time, it's like that. "[44]84 It can be seen that Cai explained "Ruo" as "so, like this". This theory was inherited by most scholars afterwards. 8 Yu Shengwu pointed out in the article "Wang Ruo Yue" Interpretation, "Wang The "Ruo" in Ruo Yue should be interpreted as "so". [45] 147 Chen Mengjia also considers "Ruo" here to mean "so" in the article "Wang Ruo Yue". We believe that the "Ruo" here means "so". Ruo should be interpreted as the meaning of “so, so”.

The use of “If” as a demonstrative pronoun was still used sporadically in the pre-Qin and Han dynasties. For example:

"Hanshu· "Xu Zhuan" "fears if evil and precepts", Wang Niansun presses "Jing Zhuan Shi Ci" Volume 7: "If, so it is. "

But after the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the use of "Ruo" as a demonstrative pronoun gradually disappeared and was replaced by other demonstrative pronouns.

(3) About the near demonstrative pronoun "er "Distinguishing the differences in research

The pronoun "er" is generally used as a second person pronoun, and sometimes as a demonstrative pronoun. Examples of "er" as a demonstrative pronoun first appeared in "Shangshu".

Regarding the nature of "er" as a demonstrative pronoun, there is also a lot of controversy in the academic circles. There are roughly the following five statements:

The theory of proximal pronouns, represented by Yang Shuda, etc., Yang Shuda classified "Er" in the "Grammar of Advanced Kingdoms" into the category of "recently called'this' meaning all characters".

The middle-referential pronoun theory is represented by Hong Bo et al. Hong Bo (1991) put " "Er" is classified into the pronouns of "Ruo group", and it is believed that the words "Ruo group" should be middle demonstrative pronouns. [26 ]82

In the theory of far demonstrative pronouns, Wang Li, Huang Shengzhang, Pan Yun Zhongzhong is the representative. Wang Li believes in the "Manuscript of Chinese History": "'er' is often used as a far-point reference. "[46]28 Huang Shengzhang (1983) pointed out: "'Er' was first seen in the "Book of Songs", such as'No Boundary' (Siwen). 'Jiang' and'jie' are relative,'this' and'er' are also relative, and'er' is undoubtedly'that'. "[ 10] 146 Pan Yunzhong mentioned in "The History of Chinese Grammar" that "er" is equivalent to "na" and "that" in modern Chinese. It can be seen that Pan believes that "er" is a far demonstrative pronoun.

The theory of special demonstrative pronouns, represented by Xiang Xi et al. Xiang Xi (1993) put forward: "The demonstrative pronouns'er, ruo, ran' are different from the proximal and distant demonstrative pronouns, and they all have'so' and'such ','that' means. We call them special pronouns. "[ 40 ]64 "Er" means "so, so" and other semantics are obviously not the opposite of general reference. This kind of statement is not credible.

The theory of predicate pronouns, represented by Guo Xiliang, Cui Libin, etc. Guo Xiliang (1989) believed that "er" is a predicate demonstrative pronoun, and proposed that "er" is mostly used as an object. His student Cui Libin basically inherited this view. Zhang Yujin (2006) further proposed: "'er' is generally It is considered to mean "so" and "so", so it should be a near demonstrative pronoun; in the Western Zhou Dynasty, it was only used as a predicate, so it was a predicate near demonstrative pronoun. "[ 34 ]276

We have examined the interpretation of "er" as a demonstrative pronoun in several dictionaries:

"Guxunhui Compilation": "Everything is like this. Those who are all regarded as'er', but all use'er', and you will be abolished if you do it. "[ 42 ]611

"Chinese Character Source and Flow Dictionary": "It is also used as a demonstrative pronoun to refer to that, this, this. "[ 16 ]187

"Shuowen Jiezi Jin Shi": Word: refers to the function word. "Duan Zhu": "Erzhi is also like this, and later generations will use the word'er' for it. "Xu Hao Jian:" You are so in harmony. "[ 47 ]159

It can be seen that most of these dictionaries classify "Er" into the category of pronouns.

In addition, some scholars in the Ming and Qing dynasties also paid close attention to them. "Er" is equivalent to "this", which is a near denoting pronoun. For example:

The guild princes allied Yu Bo, interpreting Song Gong. The "Biography" says: If there is no explanation, this is the word What is the interpretation? Public and for you. ("Twenty-one Years of Gongyang Chuanxi")

Wang Yinzhiyun: "To be with you, and for this; to discuss with you, and to discuss with you This too. "[ 48 ]79

According to our investigation of the syntactic function of the demonstrative pronoun "er" in ancient times, "er" was only used as a predicate in the Western Zhou Dynasty, and it can also be used as an adverbial in the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period. Therefore, The demonstrative pronoun "er" has the attribute of predicate, and we classify it into the category of predicate near demonstrative pronouns.

The demonstrative pronoun "er" only appears in "Shangshu" in the Western Zhou Dynasty, for example:

Wang said: "Woohoo! Seal, Jingming is a punishment. People have petty crimes, but they are not humiliated, but they are only the end; self-incriminate, Shier, there are minor crimes, but they must not kill. There is a big sin, not the end, but only a disaster; Shir, since the way is extremely guilty, time cannot be killed. "("Shangshu·Kanggao")

Huang Shengzhang (1983) once mentioned: "'Er' has not been used since the "Book of Songs" before the Qin Dynasty. "[ 10 ]146 This is not true. In fact, "er" is still used as a demonstrative pronoun in Mencius. For example: , Do not do what you evil, you are also. ("Mencius·Li Lou")

If you have to take, you are also. ("Mencius·Teng Wen Gong")

Mencius said : "Rich years old, the children are more dependent; fierce years, the children are violent, and the talents are not born of heaven, so it is also true that those who fall into their hearts. "("Mencius·Gaozi Chapter Jushang")

Among them, in Example 1, "Er" is used as a predicate in the sentence, and Example 2 "Er" is used as an adverbial in the sentence.

However, compared with "Ruo", the use of "er" as a demonstrative pronoun in the pre-Qin period is not very common. As Lu Shuxiang mentioned in "Modern Chinese Demonstrative Pronouns": "'er' and'If' were also indicative in ancient times. Usage: Pre-Qin Dynasty uses'Ruo', such as'A gentleman is like a person!' ("The Analects of Confucius, Xianwen"), but after the Wei and Jin Dynasties,'er' was often used, such as'ershi' and'erri' in "Shi Shuo Xin Yu" ,'Zier','Erdo','Erxin', etc. are not uncommon. "[ 46 ]154

(4) Discrimination of the differences in the study of the proximal pronoun "No"

"Suo Wen Jie Zi": "No, no. From the mouth, never, not silent. Duan Yucai's Note: "If you don't, you won't be the case; if you don't, you won't be the case." So the sound and meaning are the same. "[ 15 ]31 It is generally believed that the nature of "no" and the adverb "bu" are the same, but "no" obviously has the nature of a pronoun in some cases, which is equivalent to "other".

Generally, “no” is not treated as a pronoun, and only a few scholars treat “no” as a pronoun."Is included in the pronouns. Zhou Fagao in "Ancient Chinese Grammar and Speaking Pian" believes that "no" is the same as "mo", both are "negative pronouns", and pointed out: "'No' or'no', instead of omitted The predicate. "[49] 324 Zhang Yujin also considered "No" as a pronoun in "Study on Chinese Pronouns in the Western Zhou Dynasty". He believed: "'No' means'otherwise','not this way','not this way', so it should be Near-referential pronoun; it can be used as a clause or a predicate, so it is also a predicate pronoun. "[34]279 We agree with this view. Since "No" can be equivalent to "Norran" and "ran" is a demonstrative pronoun, then "No" should also have the usage of demonstrative pronouns.

Pronouns" "No" is more common in pre-Qin Chinese. We try to explore the nature of "No" as a pronoun based on the usage of "No" in Zuo Zhuan. Zhou Fagao (1959) summarized the situation when "No" was used as a pronoun. It lists three situations when "No" is used as a pronoun, which basically summarizes all the situations when "No" is used as a pronoun in the pre-Qin period.

"No" in "Zuo Zhuan" appears on both sides. In context, "no" is used to express the opposite, which is equivalent to "otherwise" in many cases. For example:

Qihou said: "The Lu people are afraid?" The opposite said: "The villain is afraid of it, gentleman Otherwise. "("The Twenty-sixth Year of Zuo Zhuan Xi Gong")

The east is not known, the west is whether it is. (" Zuo Zhuan·The Nine Years of Xi Gong")

Where the princes If you marry a daughter, you have the same surname as a maiden, but different surnames are not. ("Zuo Zhuan·Eight Years of Cheng Gong")

Ping Zi Yuzhi said: "Zhi Ye. Only the first new moon is not made, and there is eclipse of the sun, so there is almost a coin, ritual. The rest are not. "("Zuo Zhuan·The Seventeenth Year of the Zhaogong")

"No (no) then (ie)" indicates a condition, which is equivalent to "otherwise", and such use cases are also more common. For example:


Righteousness advances, otherwise retreat, dare not only the son follow? ("Zuo Zhuan·Aigong 6th Year")

Strength advances, otherwise, retreat, do what you can. ("Left Zhuan Zhaogong Fifteen Years")

The princes' new clothes, Chen Xinlai and he will look at me, and I will be amicable, otherwise I will carry two. ("Zuo Zhuan·Four Years of Xianggong")

If you are against a move, you can’t use “otherwise” instead. For example:

In the spring of 30 years, the Jin people invaded Zheng to see if it could be attacked or not. ("Zuo Zhuan·Xi Gong 30 Years")

If there is a total of no, it is sinful. ("Zuo Zhuan·The Sixteenth Year of Zhaogong")

If the people want or not, they come with a slower time.("Zuo Zhuan·Zhaogong Sixteenth Year")

"Zuo Zhuan·Ai Gong Twelve Years")

From the above example sentences, it can be found that "No" is used as a predicate in the sentence, and can be used as a predicate alone or in parallel with other predicates. The referents must appear in the preceding text.

The question is: What is the difference between the same predicate pronouns in ancient times?

In terms of syntactic function, " "Ran" was mainly used as a predicate and adverbial in ancient times, and it was more common as a predicate; "If" was mostly used as an attributive in a sentence, but it was sometimes used as an adverbial; "er" was mainly used as a predicate and sometimes as an adverbial; "No" is only used as a predicate in the sentence. 9

In terms of frequency of use, "If" and "ran" are the most common, while "er" and "no" appear relatively less frequently.


3. Preliminary conclusions

Ancient Chinese part-of-speech synonymous pronouns mainly include "Zi", "Yes(Time)", "This", "Si", and "Yi". "" etc. 5. The near demonstrative pronoun "Si" first appeared in Shangshu. The "Si" in "You Simingxiang" should be a near demonstrative pronoun. It is more common for "Si" to be the nominative in ancient times. "Shi" is generally trained as "this", which should be a near-referential pronoun. "Shi" and "Shi" are synonymous in ancient times, and the two can be substituted for each other. In addition to "Shi", "Yes" can also be used. It is written as "Huh" and "real". The main syntactic function of "Shi" in ancient times was the object, not the subject. In the ancient times, "Yi" as a demonstrative pronoun only appeared in the "Book of Songs", mainly used as an attributive, should be a near demonstrative pronoun "This" is more commonly used to refer to people in the pre-Qin period, and it is not uncommon for it to refer to people alone, but it is clear that the pre-Qin period "is" is more commonly used to refer to people than "this", and "is" refers to people. Most of them appear alone. "This" refers to people's time more in the form of "this + noun". Compared with "being", "this" is more used to indicate a place, and both "being" and "this" can be used to mean Time, but "being" and "this" are semantically different.

The predicate pronouns in ancient Chinese mainly include "ran", "er", "ruo", "no", etc. 4 A. In the ancient literature, it said " For the response meaning of "correct" and "this is", "ran" is still a demonstrative pronoun, and the demonstrative pronoun "ran" is mainly used as a predicate andadverbial. The demonstrative pronoun "If" has appeared in "Shangshu", and "If" can also be used as an adverbial in addition to the attributive. The "Ruo" in "Wang Ruo Yue" is also a demonstrative pronoun. In addition to the "Book of Songs", the demonstrative pronoun "er" also has a few use cases in "Mencius". "Er" is mainly used as a predicate and sometimes as an adverbial; "No" is only used as a predicate in a sentence.


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1 It is generally not controversial which type of demonstrative pronoun "here" belongs to, except that Guo Xiliang put forward " "Zi" should be a general pronoun. In the past, every family classified "Zi" into the proximal pronouns. "This" is a near demonstrative pronoun. It is the consensus view of the academic circles and there is no dispute.

2(1) The following are two example sentences with "Si" as the object and in the inverted sentence in "The Analects": Qisi zhizhi and! ("The Analects of Confucius · Xueer") Wusi Jian Zhi could not believe it. ("The Analects of Confucius·Gongye Chang")

3(2) According to our investigation, "Si" was often used as a conjunction in sentences in ancient times. The Chinese Dictionary: "Conjunction. 1. Representation" Continuing from the above, we come to the conclusion that it is equivalent to'Ze' and'R'. Book 8 of "Jing Zhuan Shi Ci" quoted by the Qing king:'Si, You Ze Ye.' 2. Represents hypothesis and concession, which is equivalent to'Jiu' "It is"." For details, see: "Chinese Dictionary" compiled by the Chinese Dictionary Editorial Committee, Chong Wenshu Bureau 2010 edition, p. 2171.

4(1) In "Study on the Grammar of Zuo Zhuan", Ho Leshi pointed out that there are about 356 cases of the demonstrative pronoun "Yes" in Zuo Zhuan. This data should be inaccurate. For details, please refer to He Leshi: "Study on the Grammar of Zuo Zhuan", Henan University Press, 2012 edition, p.175.

5(2) Many scholars regard "Yes" and "Yes to use" as a word or a fixed format. Ao Jinghao (1982) pointed out: Before the beginning of the sentence or the predicate, make the context contiguous, emphasizing that the sentence is the result of the above-mentioned reasons. They are structurally independent of the predicate, but the meaning of the sentence still helps the predicate of the sentence clarify the facts." According to Ao’s investigation, the inscriptions of “Yes” and “Yes” in the Spring and Autumn Period of the Western Zhou Dynasty all have use cases. The "Shijing" and "The Analects" are all used as "yes" and "yes". Later, "Zuo Zhuan" and "Yi" are used. "Mencius", "Zhuangzi" and "Mozi" all use "yes" instead of "yes" (except for quotations). It can be seen that "yes" finally replaced "yes" in this period.

6(1) Zhang Yujin in "West Zhou Han"The Study of Linguistic Pronouns" mentioned: "The demonstrative pronoun ‘Yi’ only appeared in the Western Zhou corpus three times, and they all appeared in the "Book of Songs." We think this data should be inaccurate.

7(1) Note: We classify the pronouns that have predicate properties into the category of "predicate pronouns". Generally speaking, predicate pronouns also have substantive properties. And predicate attributes.

8(1) There are also some scholars who think that "Ruo" cannot be understood as "such" here. Dong Zuobin believes: "'Wang RuoYue' is a kind of official document procedure,'RuoYue' is a written language, and it is simply called'WangYue'." Wang Zhankui also believes that "Wang RuoYue" is not the meaning of "the king said so". "Wang Ruo Yue" is improperly interpreted as "The King Says This", it is proposed: "The meaning of'Wang Ruo Yue' is'in the name of God, the king said'." For details, please refer to the editorial board of "Zhou Qin Culture Research" "Zhou Qin Culture Research", Shaanxi People's Publishing House, 1998 edition, p. 359.

9(1) Zhang Yujin mentioned the difference in the syntactic functions of "ran", "If", and "er" in "Study on Chinese Pronouns in the Western Zhou Dynasty": "Ran can be used as a predicate and adverbial. 'Only as a predicate, and'If' as only an adverbial." Obviously, only the syntactic function summary of "ran" is accurate here. For details, see Zhang Yujin: "Study on Chinese Pronouns in Western Zhou Dynasty", Zhonghua Book Company, 2006 edition, p. 279.

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Label group:[reading] [Guoxue] [Confucianism] [The Analects] [Pre-Qin culture] [Zuo Zhuan] [Pre-Qin era] [Pre-Qin history] [predicate] [Demonstrative] [Book of Songs

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