The cover of the Fudan Tibetan edition has the inscription "Qianxintang Collection" in large characters and the number of volumes, which are written by Gui Xiu. The detailed list of each volume on the cover is written by Wang Xinfu. The first volume is a plain paper note, with eleven lines per half leaf and eighteen characters in lines. The remaining three volumes are red grid notes, with six lines per half leaf and eighteen characters in line. The title "Sanduoxuan System in Provincial City" is under the board center. The provincial capital is Guangzhou. Sanduoxuan was founded in the Guangxianfeng period of the Qing Dynasty. Its business scope includes stationery, paper, and mounting. It is a well-known old brand in Guangzhou. The shop was originally located on Gaodi Street. After liberation, it moved to Beijing Road and Wende Road. Save.  These four volumes have the same font and should be copied by the same person. It can be seen that the eight volumes of Qianxintang Ji were not copied from Wang Xinfu's Xueli Zhai, but were copied from Guidi in Hong Kong and sent to Wang Xinfu who was in Shanghai at the time.
1.2 The relationship between "Gui Haoting Ji" and the eight-volume "Qianxin Tang Ji"
"Guangzhou Dadian" The 99th volume contains six manuscripts of Gui Wencan manuscripts in the library of Sun Yat-sen University. The total title is "Gui Wencan Manuscripts". There is a volume of "Gui Haoting Collection" and the cover title is "Gui Hao Ting Collection One" , It is the first two volumes of the eight-volume "Qianxintang Collection".
There is an inscription of Gui Wencan on the cover, and the bottom part is broken. The article says, "People who are close to ancient writings, every doubt is solved □□□□Song Luo □□□… …Listed in the volume of "Jing Jie", "Cai Zhong Lang Ji" has "Yue Ling Q&A" and so on...... and then I can't help it. Recently, those who said Jing Jie is not ancient texts, have not tasted...... Can not be used to explain the ears. Clumsy. It is divided into eight volumes, and the first four volumes are all... the texts of the classics are not against the common customs, so they respect the classics. Wencan knows himself.” After the cover, there are two leaves of "Zhou Li Jin Shi" and two works related to "Zuo Zhuan". There are two halves of "Zhou Li Jin Shi" at the end of the volume, and one whole leaf, both of which are notes.
"Gui Haoting Collection" contains 22 articles, which is exactly equivalent to the first two volumes of the eight-volume "Qianxintang Collection". This note book has eight lines per half leaf, with lines ranging from twenty-two characters. Each article starts and ends in the same order as Volumes 1 and 2 of the eight-volume "Qianxintang Ji", except that the volume is not marked.
"The Collection of Gui Haoting" is copied and edited, and there are some corrections of ink pens. The corrections are divided into three categories. First, standardize the wording used in the whole book, such as "Huh" is mostly changed to "real". (See "Shi Liang", "Zhou Li Shi Tian Jie" and other chapters)
Second, correct the mistakes in the writing of banknotes. , Unbearable", the ink brush changed "fang" to "cai". In the "Shi Guo" chapter, "Guo Fei is outside and inside the city", the ink brush is changed from "in" to "wrapped". The "Shi You" chapter is "different but different", and the ink brush has been changed from "outside" to "yin". In the chapter of "Shigu", "Xiaoer's right four is said to be the same", and the ink brush changed "right" to "stone". In the "San Jian Jie" chapter, "there are only words about Lu Ji, Guan, and Cai", and the ink brush has been changed from "He" to "Father". An Lu's father was a person's name, and the change was very serious. In the "Exercising Tian Jie of Zhou Li", "it is not for the purpose of setting up the teacher", and the ink brush is changed from "dry" to "wo". The case was "dry rotation" without any hesitation, and it was treated as "good offices." Some people have deleted the Yanwen, such as the "Qi Renshi Zhaonan" in the "Shi You" chapter, and the ink brush points to the word "people". "Ancient Wenshangshu Bibliography" "Muqi Gou Xianmozhi", the ink brush is changed to "Real and Gou Xianyu". The case "Qi, Shi", "Si" and "Si" are all close and corrupt.
Third, change the wording of the article, for example, in the "Shi Shi" article, "Those who can tell Yang Mo are sages", and the ink brushes are changed from "liu" to "tu ". In the "Shiyao" chapter, "Yuan is the big bell", the ink pen deletes the word "Jiyong Nai". In the same article, "Tian Duan said it can be followed, and Xu Jun regards Yin as Chunyu's genus, why. Said.", the ink brush is changed to "the thief". In the same article, "the four characters of "Chun Yu Zhi Xing" should be regarded as Xu Jun Shi Duo's essay", and the ink brush was changed from "dang to" to "cover". In the "Shitiao" chapter, "it seems to be inadequate according to what the fu essay says," and the ink brush is changed to "according to this is the lack of evidence in Shanglin Fu". In the same article, "Dang according to Sun Yan's "Er Ya Note", the ink pen is changed to "Dang according to "Er Ya" Sun Note". In "San Jian Jie", "Mao Shi Pu" is said to be the second wind of Qi clan near Tiantai", and the ink brush is changed to "Mao Shi Pu" is from it, near Qi clan's second wind". In the same article, "Wang's words cannot be followed", the ink brush is changed to "Lost lost". In the same article "sincere is beyond doubt", the ink pen is changed to "yes". In the same article, "Wang's Boshen said that Cai and Huo cannot be said together; if he speaks about Cai, he cannot speak about Huo; if he speaks about Huo, he cannot speak about Cai." The ink pen is changed to "Wang's name is that Cai Huo cannot be said together".
This kind of modification of the wording of the article already implies the intention of making a statement on behalf of the author, and there are things that non-authors cannot do. If these proofreaders were not written by Gui Wencan, they were also based on Gui's final draft. Considering that Gui Wencan's inscription is on the cover, these proofs are probably made by Gui Wencan. The words and sentences in the eight-volume "Qianxintang Ji" are without exception, and they all have the same appearance as the revised text. It can be seen that the eight-volume "Qianxintang Ji" originated from the "Gui Haoting Ji".
The one-volume "Qianxintang Collection" included in the "Nanhai Guishi Classics Collection" contains nine articles and eighteen leaves, which is only equivalent to the eight-volume "Qianxintang Collection" "The second half of the eighth volume. It is worth noting that the eighth volume is different from the other seven volumes. This volume is divided into two parts, and each part is titled "Jianxintang Collection Volume Eight". Only the title, number, and author of the volume at the end of the second part are deleted in ink. The second part contains nine articles in the one-volume "Qianxintang Ji", and the order of the articles is also the same. The two parts are sorted according to the style, so it seems that this volume has not been compiled yet.
1.3 The contents of the eight-volume "Qianxintang Ji"
The first four volumes of the eight-volume "Qianxintang Ji" For the classics, the last four volumes are essays. The ten articles collected in the first volume all explain the meanings of the words according to the scriptures. The twelve articles in the second volume are all texts of dialectical interpretations. The 20 articles in the third volume are mostly related to the Sanli Mingwu system. The fourth volume contains nine articles, all of which are related to the three rituals or historical geography. The fifth volume contains seven articles, which are adapted from memorials and articles. The four chapters of "Maritime Defence Discussion" are adapted from the memorial to "Maritime Defence Matters" published by Gui Wencan in the second year of Tongzhi. The contents are roughly the same, and each is detailed. "Maritime Defence Matters" is part of the "Gui Wencan Collection" in the library of Sun Yat-sen University, and has been included in the 99th volume of "Guangzhou Dadian". Since the 14 articles of "Tiao Chen" published by Gui Wencan in the second year of Tongzhi, the "Qianxintang Collection" is based on the three articles that focus on the current disadvantages, divided into "Zhou Lilun", "Foreign Commodities Increase Taxation", and "Official Silver Coins" "Three articles. The latter two articles advocate the use of financial means to deal with the deficit in overseas trade by means of economic system construction, which can be described as far-sighted. The sixth volume contains sixteen prefaces, all written by Gui's self, including "Zhang Xuelu's Posthumous Notes", "Duzhi Compilation Lue", "Zi Si Zi Ji Jie", "Re-editing Jiang's Analects", "Zhu Zi Shu Zheng The seven books such as "Records", "The Four Seas", and "Xianying Pictures" are no longer published today, but they rely on their own prefaces to get a glimpse of their academic purposes in the fields of ancient classics, Song studies, and Yudi. The seventh volume contains sixteen postscripts, all of which are related to scholars of classics, mathematics, and gold and stone. The eighth volume is mostly related to friends and other people, including 22 articles, "Take advantage of the prosperous talents of North and South learning style, can be used as a resource to talk about stories" .
Wang Xinfu called "The Haoting Classics is deep in the depths", "The concentrated textual researches contained in the research, there are many meritorious sutras and friendship. All scholars in the Qing dynasty Sinology commented and commented. , Examination-oriented Confucianism. True Confucianism may have to be transferred to Song Confucianism. Haoting's analysis is very clear, and its teacher Chen Lanfu is not a master of Cheng, Zhu, Han, and Song."  Gui Wencan is also right. His collection of essays contains essays on Scripture, which is afraid of disputes about things, so it is a little argumentative. Therefore, the inscription in the front of the book is "For those who are close to ancient literary, every doubtful Scripture Interpretation □ □ Song Luo □ □… Interpretation of the Scriptures in one volume, " "Cai Zhonglang Collection" has "Yueling Questions and Answers" and so on...... and then I can't help it. Recently, those who say that the interpretation of the classics are not ancient texts, it is not... The texts of the scriptures are not against the common customs, so they respect the scriptures. Wencan knows himself.” Although the inscription of this paragraph is too incomplete, it can still be roughly seen that Gui Wencan mainly wants to express his views on the inclusion of the scriptures in the collection. The collection of essays on the Scriptures is something that has existed in ancient times. Secondly, it can also be seen that he was a little conceited in his essays, so he wrote this inscription.
Many of these essays on Scripture are from his class test works when he was studying at Xuehaitang. "Three Collections of Xuehaitang" contains five articles by Gui Wencanwen, which are respectively titled " Annotation of Poems and Li Annotations, "Shi Shi", "Zhou Li Shi Tian Jie", "Fei Xi Kao", "Huang Kan Lun Semantic Summaries", "Xuehaitang Four Collections" collected three articles, namely "Xi Zun Xiang" Zun Kao, "Yugong Characters and Meanings", "Book Classics Interpretation and Narration". One volume of "Annotation of Poetry, Annotations and Literary Notes" is included in "Gui Shi Jingxue Series", and "Huang Kan Lun Semantic Summaries""The Meaning of Yugong Characters" is not found in "Qianxintang Collection", it is regarded as Gui Wencan's lost text.
In addition to these eight articles, there are also some of the "Qianxintangji" that are also the work of Xuehaitang. This is because some of the articles collected in "Xuehaitang Three Collections" and "Four Collections" have the same topics as those collected in the collections of the Gui family.
In addition, there is also the same topic in the collection of peers who studied at Xuehaitang with Gui Wencan at the same time The article is probably also the work of the class test at that time. For example, Volume 1 of Zhou Yinqing's "Three Remaining Drafts of Classics" has "Poems and Tui Jiejie", and Volume Two of "Qianxintang Collection" and "Tubei Jie" are works of the same title. Zhou Yinqing, the first name is Qing, the word ranks Qing. Number three. Cantonese. Daoguang Jinshi in twenty-four years. Served as prefects in Chengwu, Mihai, Gaomi and Linzi. When he was young, he had been undergraduate study in Haitang.  "The Three Remnants of the Code" has the inscription: "Master Ruan Yizheng supervised Guangdong, founded Xuehaitang, and tasted his career. The more ten years, the lessons and art accumulated into a volume,... It is planned to be written in the next ten years, and several poems are kept. I will delete them in time to pay for the people."  Zhang Shunhui's "Anthology of Qing Dynasty" Volume 18 Comment on Zhou Yinqing's "Three Remaining Drafts of Classics" stated that "Yinqing was at the Jingshi Primary School and worked hard." It is not deep. So although there are many textual researches in the collection, but Chen Yi is full of skin, there are few good ones. And nine out of ten, they are all the lessons when they studied at Xuehaitang at an early age. At that time, they were still young and didn't read much. The thoughts are not secret, and it is reasonable to say that they cannot be heard."  "Qianxintang Collection" Volume 4 "Hai has two poems and six body solutions", Chen Li ("East School Collection" Volume 2) also has the same title For. This question can also be seen in the engraved scriptures in the third month of the seventh year of Tongzhi in the Scripture Jingshe . It can be seen that this is a common question in the class examinations of the Scripture Jingshe and Xuehaitang . It can be inferred from this that Gui Wencan's "Tube Jiejie" and "Hai You Two Poems and Six Body Solutions" are also works during the study of Xuehaitang.
There are some text titles in "Three Collections of Xuehaitang" which are similar to those in "Qianxintang Collection", and they may have been written while studying at Xuehaitang. For example, Zou Boqi's "Wen King Is Regarded as the King" (Volume 11 of "Xuehaitang Three Collections"), and Volume 2 "Wen Wang Is Regarded as the King" have their respective focuses. Huang Yihong, He Naigeng, and Pan Jili each have a piece of "A Study of Wei Bian's Clothing" (Volume 7 of "Xuehaitang Three Collections"), which is similar to the topic discussed in Book 3 of "Wei Bian Changfu". Chen Li's "Annotation of Heishui Entering the South China Sea" (Volume 3 of "Xuehaitang Three Collections") is similar to the viewpoint stated in Volume 3 of "Heishui Chishui Kao". Chen Li also wrote the article "Black Water Test" (Volume 1 of "East School Collection"), which shows the evolution of the academic viewpoints of the two masters and apprentices Chen and Gui.
In addition, although some of the articles in "Qianxintangji" are not found in "Xuehaitangji", they may also be works of lesson art. For example, all the essays in Juan I are explanatory characters. poem. Most of the first four episodes of "Xuehaitang Ji" started with this kind of essays on Chinese characters, which is undoubtedly related to the academic tradition that began when Xuehaitang was founded. In addition, textual research on the names, words and sentences of scriptures, readers, and postscripts of historical books are all common styles of the lesson art at that time. This kind of articles in "Qianxintang Ji" is not the work of the graduating school. The inscription of the so-called "respecting the classics" in the front of Gui Wencan's volume is actually a collection of the lessons in the school of study and study, and it is included in the collection of essays.
2. A brief study of the "Spring and Autumn Map of Nations"
2. A brief study of the "Spring and Autumn Map of Nations"2.1 The description of the "Spring and Autumn Kingdoms"
Gui Tan's son, Gui Tan, "Xing Zi Hao Ting Fu Jun Xing Shu" records fifty kinds of works by Gui, Among them are "A Textual Research on the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries" and the first volume of "A Map of the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries". Ye Changchi (1849-1931) once wrote "The Preface to Gui's Suicide Note" by Wang Mingluan, Qiantang, Qiantang, Qiantang, who was then Guangdong Xuezheng. Therefore, Ye's once read Gui Wencan's works once read. Tongzhi thirteenth year (1874) April 15 "Diary" says: "After the heavy rain in the afternoon, read the posthumous works of Wencan of Gui Clan in Nanhai, where ten kinds are called "Yi Dayi Supplement", "Mao Shi Shi Shi Shi Di", "Course of the Spring and Autumn Counties", "Meng Zi Zhao" Annotated Textual Research, "The Collected Syndrome of Filial Piety", "The Supplement of the Classics of the Classics", the "Summary of Classics", "The First Sentence Reading of Shuowen", "The Collection of Classical Studies", "The Collection of Qianxintang", Guiwei Chen Lanfu's disciple, so his studies are rigorous and have little experience."  It can be seen that there are indeed two books, "A Textual Research on the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries" and "A Map of the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries".
2.2 Contents of "The Spring and Autumn Countries Map"
Five volumes of the "Spring and Autumn Countries Map" in the Nanjing Library, there are Gui Wencan's preface. There are five leaves per roll, one picture per leaf, twenty-five pictures count, and one thin book. The three sides of the scroll end seal are: ""Jiaxing Qian/Jinfu Collection/Painting and Calligraphy Chapter (White Fang)" "Jiangsu Provincial/First Book/Collection Book (Zhu Fang)" "Nanjing/Book/Collection (Zhu Fang)", Qian Jinfu (1851-1912) , Named Kang Rong, was the grandson of Qing Dynasty scholar Qian Taiji . It can be known from Gui Wencan's self-report that this book was published in the seventh year of Xianfeng in Qing Dynasty. Gui's self-preface "Qianxintang Ji" is missing, and it is also Gui Wencan's lost article. The full text is as follows:
Those who read Chunqiu must not be without pictures. Xidu Yuankai tasted the picture of the Spring and Autumn League according to the lawsuit. In his words, according to the name of the county, county, county and county today , Shanchuan Dao Tuzhi, Yan and Four Tables, captured by human traces, boats and carts, are all pictures and prepared. Then the place names of the Spring and Autumn Countries and the League are attached, and the name is "Gujinshu Chunqiu League "Picture". Do not collect a sparse volume, with the "Explanation" attached, and prepare for it. Steal the rules to imitate the meaning, according to the present map to draw a map of the spring and autumn countries, the provinces, counties, mountains and rivers are all based on the map of Dong's family in Yanghu For this purpose, the names of the Spring and Autumn Countries are in the annexes. Where the north-south longitude, east-west latitude, two hundred miles per degree, two hundred miles per square on the ground. And the provincial capital from, the city from the province □, Zhili prefecture from, Sanzhou city from. Zhili office city from, Santing city from ◇, county from 〇, county The patrol inspection station stationed in Tucheng is still the same. The name of the Spring and Autumn Period is added to the outside to distinguish it from the present. When the square is calculated, the countries are wide and narrow, and the distances are all well known. And the alliance of the day, Military service can be imagined. According to the reading of the scriptures, it is undoubtedly confusing. However, the study of geography cannot be infallible, and Dong Tujia's mistakes were corrected slightly. (Fogang Tingcheng Dang is in Zhenshuizhi To the east, Dong Tu is to the west of the river. Fengshun County should be in the northwest of Jieyang County, Dong Tu is to the east of Jieyang County. The Beiqin River and Nanqin River in Changle County are the source of Qingxi River, and Dong Tu is from Yujiao, Jieyang County. Nanxi and Shangsha Shui from the source of Xishangyuan are mistaken.) It may be wrong, the boyar gentleman in China, Shu Kuangqi cannot catch Yan. In October of the seventh year of Xianfeng, Gui Wencan in the South China Sea.
According to Gui Wencan's own preface, it is known that this map was adapted from the "Map of Dong's Family in Yanghu". The ancient and modern place names are marked on the same map. The map reflects the geographical features of the Qing Dynasty. At the same time, on the map The latitude and longitude are marked in the middle, which is not as good as the previous revision.
The so-called "map of Yanghu Dongshi" is the "Geographical Map of the Qing Dynasty" compiled by Dong Youcheng. Dong Youcheng (1791-1823) He was originally named Zeng Chen with the word Fangli and the name Lanshi. He was born in Yanghu (now Changzhou), Jiangsu Province. Juren in the 23rd year of Jiaqing (1818). He was good at writing in the Han, Wei and Six Dynasties, and he was good at law, calendar, mathematics, geography, and famous things. The study. Authors of "Dong Fangli Wen Jia Ji" volume two, "Yi Ji" volume two, "Santong Shu Yanbu" volume one, "Cut Yuanlian Proportion Technique Illustration" three volumes, "Shui Jing Annotated Illustrated Remnant Draft" Four volumes and so on. See "Chou Ren Biography Compilation"  for his life stories.
Seeing the maps "Emperor Yu Quan Map" and "Qian Long Inner Mansion Map" drawn by Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong, I copied the banknotes and used them as a blueprint for publication and handed down to the world. The picture shows both the latitude and longitude and the grid of the plan, reflecting the integration and integration of Chinese and Western drawing methods in the mid-Qing Dynasty. The drawing range starts from Sakhalin Island in the east, Congling in the west, Heilongjiang in the north, and the South China Sea in the south. This map reflects the political situation in the Daoguang period. It is the most novel type of map that Gui Wencan has seen, so it became the blueprint of the "Spring and Autumn Countries".  After Dong Tu came out, he was favored by scholars. Li Zhaoluo took it as the blueprint and produced the "Comprehensive Map of the Unification of the Empire". Chen Li's friend Hu Xiyan once re-engraved the Dong map, changing it to a large square book. Later, when the Hu family returned to Hunan, the book was also taken with him. Only one hundred copies of the book were left in Guangzhou. Soon after, Chen Li's relatives and friends were all asked to read. In the ten years of Tongzhi, Guangzhou re-engraved the Hu's copy.  Chen Li's disciple Zhao Qiying compiled "Emperor Qing Geographical Figures and Rhymes", which is based on the engraved drawings of Dong by Hu.
2.3 The academic background of "The Spring and Autumn National Atlas"
Chen Li studied at Xuehaitang in his early years and was naturally advocated by Ruan Yuan The influence of academic ideas. Ruan Yuan said in "Xuehaitang Collection Preface" that "or study the scriptures, find meaningless in Song and Qi; or explain the text, examine the old and teach in Cangya; or analyze the truth and keep the true biography of Hui'an; or discuss the history and seek depth. Ning’s family method; or follow the Han and Jin dynasties, master Xiao Xuan, learn from Tang and Song dynasties, and learn poetry. Although the nature is close, the profession has special skills, and the strength can be combined, and the matters are not good."[20 ] This is not only Ruan Yuan’s expectation of Guangdong scholars, but also the academic discipline regarded by Xuehaitang scholars as the standard, so it is written in "Xuehaitangzhi" . Ruan Yuan established Xuehaitang to introduce the academy system of Zhejiang Ancient Classics Jingshe into Guangdong.Specific to the assessment of daily learning, "each year is divided into four classes, and the seniors will produce scripture interpretation, writing, ancient and modern poetry questions, and the paper will be cut off within a day, and the assessment of A and B will be distributed to the anointing fire."  That is, four classes per year. In the second examination, the three items of "Jing Jie, Writing Style, Ancient and Modern Poetry Questions" for students, "As for the lighter and heavier between Jie Jie and Ci Fu, it is clear that Jing Jie is the first, and Ci Fu should be derived from the Jing Jie." Especially emphasize one item of Scripture. [23 ]
Chen Li also started with Scripture in his early years, but later his views on Scripture changed. He believed that learning Scripture was only a means, not an end. He once warned his classmates at the Jupo Abode, "The Abode emphasizes learning, not to gain superiority, and even those who treat sutras do not want to interpret sutras. If a servant has a false name today, everyone says that he has sutras, but he is self-defeating. After middle age, I don’t have a scripture interpretation for a long time. It can be seen that the treatment of scripture does not care about the scripture interpretation. Beginners use the scripture interpretation as the way to cure the scriptures, and borrow superb as the ears of learning and benefit."[ 24 ]
In order to cope with the inherent needs of academic self-development since Qianjia, as well as the tension between imperial examination and learning, foreign economic and military threats and other practical needs. This kind of material and spiritual difficulties, as well as the collision of reality and ideals, has a great impact on scholars. Chen Li tried to change the style of study formed since the establishment of Xuehaitang to cope with the new problems faced by everyone. This change in academic orientation is embodied in the four subjects advocated by Chen Li . He believes that "everyone who is a scholar must choose one of the four disciplines, and he will be a man in the future, and the four disciplines must be based on classics and history."  The so-called four subjects are the "ethics, speech, literature, and political affairs" in "The Analects". Specifically, he wrote "Xue Si Lu" (later changed to "Eastern School of Reading Notes"), "The original intention was to give full play to the theory of justice, and he was worried that scholars would not read books without textual evidence."  So he advocated Music, geography, arithmetic, etiquette, and authored "Tongkao of Tone and Rhythm", "Qin Lupu" (Musical Science), "Detailed Explanation of Santong Shu", "Arc Triangle Head-Up Method" (arithmetic), "Hanshu Geography" "Zhishui Dao Illustrated" and "Shui Jing Annotation of Southwest Zhushui" (Yu Ge Science) as a model. In his correspondence with Gui Wencan, he also said, “The so-called Confucian classics and elementary schools in the world have some people, but there are few practical ones. If my brother specializes in rituals, servants specialize in music, Tefu specializes in heavenly calculation, and Zi Shao specializes in rituals. In terms of geography, such practical learning is not complete. The younger generations have some questions. It is especially good if all colleagues are dedicated to art."  Chen Li did not have a monograph on the study of rituals, but his "Eastern School Reading" The "Secretary" accounted for more than other scriptures in Sanli, and it can also be seen that it focuses on the study of rituals.
Gui Wencan’s study of geography takes the historical geography in the classics as the main research object , which is derived from his teacher Chen Li’s study of geography. Advocate.
2.4 Lost Essays on the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries
There are only eight or nine kinds of Gui Wencan's works that have been engraved, and more than twenty kinds have been lost, and most of them are in cash. Ye Changchi once read "A Textual Research on the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries", which has been mentioned above. The public and private bibliographies have not yet been recorded or have been lost. One volume of "Gui Haoting Collection" in the library of Sun Yat-Sen University. There are scattered leaves in front of the book, including three and four leaves of Gui Wencan "Zhou Li Jin Shi". There are also two half-leafs, whose lines and fonts are similar to the scattered leaves of "Zhou Li Jin Shi", and their content is geographically related to "Zuo Zhuan", or the lost texts of "A Textual Research on the Territory of the Spring and Autumn Countries".
The lower part of the loose leaf is incomplete, and the sentence cannot be associated with it. It is marked with... If the text is overwhelming and unrecognizable, replace it with □. The records of the original banknotes are as follows:
The first half leaf
nest. In winter, the army of Chu under the Yuzhang, defeated, and then encircled...
□zhe is present-day Tongcheng County, Anqing Prefecture, Anhui, and its nest is present-day Luzhou Prefecture, Chao County,
The dove is in Shucheng County, the capital of Luzhou, and more than two hundred southeast of Shouzhou...
Wu Second to Shouzhou, Wu used the army to imprison him, and the double-distributed squad was in...
In Shouzhou, he took the nest. The "Biography" of the Four Years of Ding, Winter, Cai Hou, Wu Zi, Tang Hou defeated Chu, She...
Yu Huaiyu, from Yu Zhang and Chu to join Han, The Wu people attacked Chu, and traveled west by boat...
Huaiyu Shezhou landed and set off from Shouzhou.Going thousands of miles to Han River...
And Chu Jia Han Ye. Those who hold the clouds in the Han, are still in the thirty-three years of "Biography" Yun and Jin...
The second half leaf
……The Thirty-three Years of Xi's "Biography"……[ 30 ]
In the five years of Xi, the Chu people were destroyed. Today, there is a string city in the southwest of Gwangju, Henan, in the west of Shouzhou.
Baili. Today, Fengyang and Luzhou, Anhui Province, belonged to Chu, and later entered Wu, so they are both in Chu Wenqiu
. It was Master Wu who encircled the string, and Master Wu went deep into the Chu realm hundreds of miles to attack Chu, Chu
Master saved the string, and the Yu Zhang and Master Wu returned. Shouzhou is the most important area of the eastern frontier. It can be land and water, and the Chu people prepare the army of Wu. They are stationed here. In this case, the Chu people were harassed by the Wu
, the Jishi walked around the enemy, and wanted to judge the return of Wu, but the Wu prophet returned.
"Biography" in the second year of Ding: Tong rebelled against Chu, and Wu Zi made Shu Jiu clan to lure Chu people into saying "Teacher to me, I
Cut the tongs, make it unscrupulous for me." Autumn, Chu Nangwa cuts the Wu master Yu Yuzhang, and the Wu people □□
Appendix Four Lost Essays by Gui Wencan
Appendix Four Lost Essays by Gui Wencan1. Postscript of Gui Wencan's "Qianxintang Collection" p>
People who are close to ancient literary texts, every doubtful Scripture Interpretation □□□□ Song Luo □□□…… Listed in the "Jing Jie" volume, "Cai Zhong Lang Ji" has "Monthly Order Questions and Answers" etc... …And then be overwhelmed. It is said that the classics are not ancient texts, but it is not... they cannot be the classics. Zhuo Ji is divided into eight volumes, the first four volumes are all...the texts of the Scriptures are not against the common customs, so they respect the scriptures. Wen Can knows himself.
2. Huang Kan's Semantic Sutras
The differences between the Sutras of Huang's Scriptures are combined with the quotations of various books Those who are more than enough to correct this book. The theory of collecting and recording and the old interpreters of the Han and Wei dynasties are more than enough to invent the classic meaning. Those who rule "The Analects" are better than those who only read Xing's "Justice". However, the loss of a thousand thoughts is inevitable. For example, in the "Study Er" chapter, "Study is not solid." Kong Anguo said, "Solid and concealed. One said, a speaker cannot be serious, neither majestic, nor strong in learning, and understand its principles." According to this note, there are two inherent principles. Righteousness, one is the solid meaning. "Qu Li" "stopped the court and looked after the gentleman, it is said that it is solid." Zheng noted that "it is not good at rites." If it is not good at rituals, it is said to be obscured and unreasonable. This solid is also a hidden meaning. "One saying," Uncle He Ping, don't quote, "It doesn't necessarily mean that learning is not strong, because it is not heavy." This is different from Kong's argument. After the Huangshi's special interpretation, he explained the meaning of the word, and he said, "The word is hidden, and it is right. The speaker can neither be serious, nor can he be a reason." It both misunderstands the meaning of the word, and it is not strong. Righteousness, and the interpretation of the concealment is mixed with the saying that it is not. Also in the "Yong Ye" chapter, "If you see Nanzi, you don't talk about Zilu. The master said, "If you don't, you will be tired of it, and you will be tired of it"." Examination of "Historical Family of Confucius", the master said "Yu If you don't, the sky is tired of it, and the sky is tired of it." The word "no" is "no", as it is in the ancient "Analects of Confucius". Zheng Jun's explanation of whether it is no is combined with the "Records of the History". The ancient people vowed to be cloudy and "what you don't", as in the "Zuo Family", "Chong Er said, "Those who don't have the same heart with the uncle are like white water"", Qingfeng said "Those who don't be with Cui Qing" can be proved. No, this reporter's words. Zang's Yulin said, "There will be more oaths on that day, especially unclear." Huang said, "When I see Nanzi, if there is something unkind, then God should be tired of my Tao." When Confucius saw Nanzi, what was wrong? Although Zilu was rash, he never doubted Confucius. Because of this, Confucius vowed. The emperor was wrong. In the "Xiang Dang" chapter, "Living is not tolerant", the Tang Shijing "Rong" is used as a "guest", and "Explanation" "Being out of residence is not a guest" says "Bitterness. The original is to be content, but the sheep are fierce and rebellious. Kong Anguo said, "For the room" The respect of the home is not long.” According to the meaning of the hole, it is difficult to treat each other as guests. The chapter of "Da Dai Li · General Wei Wenzi" "is as poor as a guest", "The Book of the Later Han · Zhou Xie Biography" notes Xie Chengshuyun "Xie's home is clean, illegal and silent. Brothers, father and son, family and family treat each other like guests." "Text" "Stunned, respectful. From the heart, guest voice." This is also the meaning. The emperor said that people who are "unacceptable" mean that they often live in the family. Patriarch Heyi, Yanju is the first to be warm, so he is not tolerant, and he is also self-sufficient. The residences of the husband and the rituals have their own graces, and everyone is not abandoning it, and it is a saint. The emperor said he was disappointed and lost his mindMeaningful. In the "Yanghuo" chapter, "You are sorrowful to see Confucius, Confucius resigns with illness, takes the fate out of the house, takes the ceremonies and sings, so that he can hear it." Uncle He Ping said, "Confucius did not want to see, so he replied with illness. The commander does not know it, and the song of his own destiny makes the commander realize, so it makes the ruins feel sad." The meeting ceremony of the archaeologists must be due to introduction. The person who resigned from the commander said, "Someone wants to see, there is no way to reach it. A certain child orders a certain see by his fate." The master said three resignations. It is this general who is the introduction, so what is called "the one who will kill." , It is not the sorrow that makes people understand. The emperor regards the commander of life as the person who is the cause of Confucius, saying that Confucius is called by the person who wants to meet Confucius. In the examination of "Ritual Miscellaneous Notes", the rumor had the funeral of the scholar at Confucius. If he wanted to see Confucius, how dare he call Confucius evil, the emperor said he lost it. Anything like this should be examined carefully. ("Xuehaitang Three Collections" Volume 13)
3. The meaning of Yugong characters
The grammar of Yugong Precise, every word has meanings, readers have to know it. That is to say, the examples are for their meaning, and the topography of the waterways is also clear because of them. For example, "Zhiliang and Qi", "Haidai and Huaiwei Xuzhou", and "Jing and Hengwei Jingzhou" are the same. It is said to repair, say, to say slightly, and it is also to rule. "It is Xiu Taiyuan", "Siyi Jilue", "Huaiyi Qiyi", and "Dream of Clouds and Earth" is also true. Achievement, dedication. "Tin Huai's bottom performance", "Heyi's bottom performance", "Yuan Xi's bottom performance" are also. Art can be cultivated, and art can be cultivated. "Mengyu Qiyi", "Minwan is the art" is also. From, from the way. "Hengheng is both following" and "Qiju is both following" is also. For, for also. "Mainland is both" and "clouds and soil dreams are the same." The way of congestion and benefit is called Tao, (this is what Zheng Jun said.) "Nine rivers are the roads", "Weizi Qidao", Jingzhou two weeks and two clouds "Tuoqian is the road" is also. Guidance and Tao are the same. "Dao Heze", "Dao Jian and Qi", "Dao Zong Tomb", "Dao Weak Water Hei Shui", "Dao River Stone Drifting Tomb", "Dao Yang Min Mountain", "Dao Jiang", "Dao Luo" "Water", "Guide Huai from Tongbai", "Guide Wei from the same point of bird and mouse", "Guide Luo from Xiong's ear" are also. The brigade also guides. "Cai Meng Lvping", "Jingqi is a trip", "Jiushan Magazine" is also. The old saying is that the name of the sacrifice is not. The two waters are equal to each other in the so-called meeting, "will meet in Weishui," "East and North will meet in Hui", "and northeast will meet in Wen", and "East will meet in Iraq." Meeting together, meeting together, "Baiju meeting together", "Four seas meeting together" is also true. The same is also the same, "Fengshui you are the same", "The same is against the river", and "Kyushu is the same." Floating, pan also. "Floating in Jiluo", "Floating in Wen", "Floating in Jiangtuo and diving in Han", "Floating in Jiluo", "Floating in Huaisi" are also. Because the water entered the water, it was said to reach, "reach to He" (now mistaken for river.), "reach to Ji," "reach to Huaisi." Dashui met Xiaoshui and said, "Jiujiang crosses east", "Luoxi crosses north", "Zhushui crosses Sanlu", and "to the east crosses Qiju". Jiuhe is called broadcasting, but Jiujiang is not broadcasting. The above and the following is an exaggeration. It should be noted from Zheng that the mountains and streams have a lot of water and should not be like Banzhi, and think that Xunyang Jiujiang is divided into nine schools. If Dangruban said, Jingdang also said that it was broadcasted as Jiujiang. Broadcast, still scattered. (Ben Zheng Jun said.) "Being broadcast to the north as Jiuhe" is also true. The small water enters the big water, "the three rivers enter", "the sea enters", "Iluojianjian enters into the river", "weak water enters into the quicksand", "the black river enters into the South China Sea", guide the mountain and guide the river. He, Dao Han, Dao Jiang, combined words into the sea, Dao Han, then said south into the river, Dao Mao, and Dao Wei combined into the river, Dao Luo and Yan again into the northeast into the sea, and guided Huai language into the sea from the east, guided Luo Yan also entered Yuhe from the northeast. Gongdao She car and boat travel, also said to enter. Jizhou dialects entered Yuhe, and Liangzhou dialects entered Yuwei. Over, over also. "Exceeding in Luo", "Exceeding in Mian", "Exceeding in the river" is also true. Zhengjueliu says chaos, "chaos in the river" is also true. Walking along the water is called Yan (this Zheng Jun said.), "Along the rivers and seas" is also true. Today’s Huai’an Prefecture is the land of Haizhou. In the time of Yu, it was under the control of the river, and the water stopped. The deep one was called a pig (Ben Ma Rong said.), "Big wild is a pig", "Pengli is a pig", "Yingbo" "Jizhu" is also. Dynasty, the princes also see the name of the emperor. The rivers and the Hans flowed to the sea, and the princes and princes respected the emperor with one heart and called the dynasty (this Zheng Jun said.), "Jianghan dynasty is in the sea" is also, You Haju, and the four seas will meet together, all of which are used to simulate the terrain. Yin, Juduoye (Ben Zheng Jun said.). "Jiujiang Kong Yin" is also true. Zhan Ze is called Pi, "being Meng Zhu", and "Jiu Ze Jibei" is also. It is the same sound with the ancient characters of Pi, and it is also connected. "Shui Jing Zhu" quotes Kan Qi, "The Thirteen States" as "Being Meng Zhu". It is not said that people who are confessed will not often enter, and Shui Shengfang is covered. Later Confucianism said that the so-called Wangwenshengxun also. A small water, a large water, divert from different sources, and the small water into the big water is said to belong to, and the small one belongs to the big wild. Or "belong to, note also", "Jing belongs to Weichong" is also. At the end, to also. "Dongyuan Diping", "Zhenze Diding" is also true. Syria, Shun also. "San Miao Pi Xu", "Xi Rong is Xu" is also true. The source of water has a different name called "liu", "Eastern flow is for Han", "East flow is for economic benefit". Remit, return also. If the water returns, it will become a zeal. "Donghuize is Peng Li", "East and North will meet in the Hui." Yeah, evil deeds too. "East and North will meet at the Hui." Zheng Zhuyun, "The one in the east is Nanjiang, but it is not Peng Lijun." If the fruit is Peng Li, it can be said to be conversant and not to be said. Diverting and compounding is called farewell, and it is also called "Dongbie is Tuo". Overflow, the water overflows too. "Overflowing for glory" is also true. There are three of those who speak the most. If the Kyushu speaks, they all record their way. "Since Taiyuan has been repaired, as for Yueyang", "Tin Huaiji, as for Hengzhang", "Over Yuluo, as for Nanhe", "Zhongnan Dunwu, as for birds and mice", "Yuanxi, as for Zhuye", "Floating on the stone, as for the dragon gate." The introduction of the mountain's words is to pass the words of other mountains. "Guide Jian and Qi, as far as Jingshan", "As far as Taiyue", "As far as Wangwu", "As far as Jieshi", "As far as Taihua", "As far as accompany tail", "As far as Daoyuezhong, as far as Jingshan", "As for the inner side as far as Dabie", "as far as Hengshan", and "as far as Shiqianyuan" are also true. When the water is introduced, the mountains and the ground through which the water passes. "As for Heli", "As for the three dangers", "Guide river accumulate stone, as for the dragon gate", "South to Huayin", "East to the bottom pillar", "East to Mengjin", "East to Luoshang, as to "Da Ya", "Crossing the water in the north, as far as the mainland", "crossing Sanlu, as far as the Dabie", "leading the river and east to Yuli", "crossing Jiujiang to the Dongling" is also true. Ma Rong thought of the name of the river as Li, and Zheng Jun reads Li as the name of the mausoleum. As an example, all the words leading to the water are speechless, and Zheng said yes. There are three meanings in words, but there are two meanings in words. One is to enter the small water into the big water, and the other is to enter the chariot and the boat to enter. (Also see the mountain.) First understand this, in order to seek the terrain, you should not be confused by different theories. (Volume 2 of "Xuehaitang Four Collections")
4. Self-preface of the Gui family tree
Guixi in Jiangxi, Guichi and Shidai in Anhui in the south of the Yangtze River, and Cixi in Zhejiang. However, after careful examination of what the books say, the beginning of the surname is different. It is said that the Taiwei of the Later Han Dynasty's "Chen Ball Stele" had Chengyang Jiong Heng, who was punishable at the end of Han Dynasty, and had four sons. One son guards the grave, his surname is Jiong. One of them took refuge in Xuzhou with the surname Fang. One son lives in Youzhou and his surname is Gui. One son lives in Huayang and his surname is alkynes. These four characters are all nine paintings. "Guangyun" and "Yuanhe Surname Compilation" and "Li Shi" Shu Puye , it is said that Gui Zhen was a doctor of Qin, the first emperor confided in Confucianism, and his surname was changed, and his grandson Yi avoided Zhu Xu as Jiong. The fourth son Ju Qi, changed to alkyne. Today Jiangdong is named Gui, "Jiyun" quotes "Jong's Genealogy", "Tongzhi" and "Liushu Gu" quotes "Gui's Genealogy". Song Lianxi bachelor's "Gu Family Cheng Xu" again said that the name of Gui's Benji was also the grandson of Lu Gong clan. Legend has it that there are Jizhen people on weekends, and their younger brother Gui will serve as the princes. Zhen was Dr. Qin, but he was killed, and Gui was afraid of harm, so he escaped with a surname. Because it is the name, those who take different characters but have the same sound, each make the four sons the surname, showing that they will not forget Juechu. The descendants still live in Youyan. During the rebellion of the Five Dynasties, Liu Rengong occupied Youzhou, and the army was in trouble. Nai is helping to carry Nandu, so that the scattered residents of Guangxin, Shangrao, Jiujiang, Xingguo, Chiyang, Yuzhang, and Chengdu counties.
Wencan was a person who lived in Guangxin Guixi, the first ancestor Yu Ziqing, and Shinan Tang was the general governor of Jingbian. To Song Jiajian school Guozi sacrificed wine, and served as a servant in the palace. Contribute to the world, the villagers temples and shrines. Later, they were awarded the ranks, and there were dozens of prominent officials. The grandson of Jijiu can be promoted and moved to Cixi. Most of them entered the official ranks, and the current branch is particularly prosperous. At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, those who confided in morality, took the Ming Jing as the prince's orthographic character, and were promoted to the king and fu, and learned about the two palaces. The Nanhai clan actually came out of Cixi and reached Wencan and became the fourth generation. It has been around for more than a hundred years, and its sons are surnamed dozens of people. Jiaqing Renxu, the first father of Jingxian County, once compiled a genealogy, and he was in possession of it for 60 years. This summer, the nephew of the cousin will be re-editing each other, and will be interviewed by himself. Xun, the great grandson of the first ancestor who moved to Guangdong, the great king and father of Fengzhigong, Yin Ran puts emphasis on the revision of the genealogy, and it is commendable that he has built up the family by Dafu and Jingzong. Wen Can dare not reluctantly. Re-editing has been completed, I would like to examine the group of books and order them. ("Guangdong Wenzheng")
5. Self-reporting of the Spring and Autumn Listed Countries
(see above, omitted) .
[1 ] This article is 2016 Annual "Guangzhou Dadian" and Guangzhou History and Culture Research Special Project "Gui Wencan Collection Compilation and Research "(Approval number2016GZY03) Phased results.
[2 ] See "Gui Ting Luan Zhu Juan", "Guangzhou Dadian" No. 208 book, the thirty-first series of history and biography category. See also the editor-in-chief of Qin Guojing: "Complete Collection of Qing Dynasty Officials' Resume Archives in China's First Historical Archives", Volume 7, Shanghai: East China Normal University Press, 1997, No. 377-378 page.
[3 ] According to Ma Jiali and Liu Xiangchun: "An Interpretation of Wang Dalong's Letter to Guo Zeyuan", cited in "Documents" , 2012 year 4 period.
[4 ] The above Wang Xinfu's "Xuelizhai Diary" is quoted from Liu Xiangchun and Wang Xiaoli: "South China Sea Gui Wencan And its article "The Collection of Confucian Classics", "Journal of the National Library of China", 2010year 2 issue, 65-98 page.
[5 ] Chen Jianhua, editor-in-chief: "Guangzhou Cultural Relics Census Compilation·Yuexiu District Volume", Guangzhou: Guangzhou Publishing House, 2008, pages 298-299.
[6 ] is a variant of Hao.
[7 ] Wang Xinfu: "Moth Technique Xuanqi Cun Collection of Rare Books", Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2002, page 1489.
[8 ] Wang Xinfu: "A Collection of Rare Books on the Moth Technique Xuanqi", Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2002, pages 1488-1489.
[9 ] "The Confluence of Cantonese Poets" Volume 3, Volume 9, Guangzhou: Lingnan Fine Arts Publishing House, 2009, page 1680.
[10 ] Zhou Yinqing "Three Remaining Drafts of Dian", "Compilation of Qing Dynasty Poetry and Essays," Volume 605, photocopied Engraved copy of Chongli Hall in the Seventh Year of Xianfeng, Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2011year, page 343.
[11 ] Zhang Shunhui: "A Narrative Collection of Qing People", Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 1963,page 492.
[12 ] Song Qiaoyan: "Study on Literature Education of the Ancient Classics Jingshe and Xuehaitang Academy", Jinan: Qilu Publishing House , 2012, page 419.
[13 ] Both schools have been influenced by Ruan Yuan’s academic thoughts.
[14 ] Quoted from Liu Xiangchun and Wang Xiaoli: "Nanhai Gui Wencan and His "Collecting Records of Confucian Classics"", "National Library Journal", 2010 year 2 issue.
[15 ] Qian Taiji(1791-1863 ), the police stone. People from Jiaxing. There are "Miscellaneous Notes on the Book of Exposure" and "Manuscript of Ganquan Township" and other books handed down to the world.
[16 ] "Chou Ren Biography" Volume 51, Yangzhou: Guangling Publishing House, 2008, page 627.
[17 ] Xi Huidong: "Cultural History of Ancient Chinese Maps", Beijing: China Map Publishing House, 2013, pages 118-120.
[18 ] Hu Xiyan, the word Jimen, and Bo Ji. His father, Hu Xiang, was once the magistrate of Nanhai, Guangzhou, and he was friendly to Chen Li and Xu Hao.
[19 ] Chen Li: "Re-engraving Dong Fangli Map Postscript", see "Chen Li Ji Foreign Languages" Volume 3 ("Chen Li Ji" Volume 1), Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008, page 393.
[20 ] "Xuehaitang Ji" first episode, "Guangzhou Dadian" No. 512 The engraved copy of the Qixiu Mountain House in the fifth year of Daoguang Emperor Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou: Guangzhou Publishing House, 2015year, page 468.
[21 ] Refer to the "Classwork" section of "Xuehaitangzhi", "Guangzhou Dadian" No.Volume 230, Guangzhou: Guangzhou Publishing House,2015, page 656.
[22 ] Refer to Article "Wenmin" of "Xuehaitangzhi", "Guangzhou Dadian" article span>230 volume, Guangzhou: Guangzhou Publishing House, 2015, page 643.
[23 ] Participating in Meifang: "Xuehaitang and Han Song Studies: Zhejiang and Yue Dihe", Beijing: Social Science Literature Publisher, 2016, page 70.
[24 ] Chen Li: "On the Scholars of Jupo Jingshe Men", see "Chen Li Collection Foreign Languages" volume Five ("Chen Li Collection" Volume One), Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008year, pp. 317-318.
[25 ] Participating in Meifang: "Xuehaitang and Han Song Studies: Zhejiang and Yue Dihe", Beijing: Social Science Literature Publishing House, 2016, pages 176-195.
[26 ] "On the Scholars of Jupo Jingshe Men", see "Chen Li Collection Foreign Languages" Volume 5 (" Chen Li Collection, Volume One), Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008year, page 316.
[27 ] Participating in Meifang: "Xuehaitang and Han Song Studies: Zhejiang and Yue Dihe", Beijing: Social Science Literature Publishing house, 2016 year, pages 176-195.
[28 ] Chen Li: "Book 10 with Gui Haoting", see "Chen Li Collection Foreign Languages" Volume 5 ("Chen Li Collection" Volume 1), Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House, 2008year, page 430.
[29 ] There are three types of Gui Wencan’s historical and geography writings, and the other two are "A Study of Yu Gong Chuan Ze ""Mao Shi Shi Shi Shi".
[30 ] These six characters are one and a half leaves and will not be connected below.
[31 ] There is a case in the original book: the context here is inconsistent, and there are omissions in the suspected copy. The four characters Youjiong, Peng, and yingui are not nine strokes, the suspected nine characters are a mistake of the eight characters, and the gui character is a mistake of the season character. Think about the case first. Those who suspect that there are omissions in the copied manuscript are, if the four-character folding pen counts as two paintings, both are also nine paintings. The calculation methods are different in ancient and modern times.
Note: This article was published in the first series of "Guangzhou Dadian Research". This is based on the author's original manuscript. Please refer to the journal for reference. Thanks to Mr. Feng Xiansi for authorizing the release. Return to Sohu to see more