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Who can get the vaccine? Where to fight? Do I have to wear a mask after playing? The authoritative response is coming!

Release Time:2021-07-01 Topic:The first leading stock of new crown vaccine Reading:20 Navigation:Stock Liao information > Health regimen > Who can get the vaccine? Where to fight? Do I have to wear a mask after playing? The authoritative response is coming! phone-reading

New crown virus vaccination questions and answers

(Updated on March 31, 2021)

1. Is it necessary to inoculate the new coronavirus vaccine?

It is necessary. On the one hand, the vast majority of people in my country do not have immunity against the new coronavirus and are susceptible to the new coronavirus. After the infection occurs, some people will develop critical illness and even cause death. After vaccination, on the one hand, the vast majority of people can gain immunity, thereby effectively reducing the risk of illness, severe illness and death; on the other hand, through orderly vaccination of the new coronavirus vaccine, an immune barrier can be gradually established in the population and blocked The epidemic of new coronary pneumonia will restore the normal operation of my country's social economy and residents' lives as soon as possible.

2. How does the new coronavirus vaccine work in the human body?

After vaccination, the human body will produce protective antibodies, and some vaccines will also enable the human body to produce cellular immunity and form a corresponding immune memory. In this way, the human body has immunity against diseases. Once the new coronavirus invades the human body, the antibodies produced by the vaccine and the cytokines released by cellular immunity can recognize, neutralize or kill the virus, and immune memory also quickly mobilizes the immune system to function, preventing the virus from continuing to multiply in the body, thereby To achieve the purpose of disease prevention.

Three. At present, how many new coronavirus vaccines are approved for conditional marketing or emergency use in my country?

The new coronavirus vaccines from 5 manufacturers in my country have been approved for conditional marketing or emergency use. Among them, three inactivated vaccines and one adenovirus vector vaccine were conditionally approved for marketing; in addition, one recombinant new coronavirus vaccine (cho cell) was approved for emergency use.

4. What are the approved manufacturers of new coronavirus vaccines?

The three new coronavirus inactivated vaccine products that have been conditionally approved for marketing are respectively provided by Sinopharm, China Bio-Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd. (Beijing Institute) and Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd. Produced by the company (Wuhan Institute) and Beijing Kexing Zhongwei Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Kexing Zhongwei).

The adenovirus vector vaccines with conditional approval for listing are produced by Cansino Biotech Co., Ltd. (Cansino).

The recombinant subunit vaccine approved for emergency use is produced by Anhui Zhifeilongkema Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Zhifeilongkema).

5. How does the new coronavirus vaccine carry out the full traceability work?

The Vaccine Management Law requires the country to implement an electronic traceability system for the entire vaccine process. After a vaccine is on the market, there should be accurate and standardized records in all aspects of production, transportation, storage, transportation, and use. The information recorded throughout the traceability includes vaccine varieties, vaccine manufacturers, dosage forms, specifications, batch numbers, expiration dates, and vaccination case information. Wait. Through the information technology of vaccination, all localities enter the above-mentioned information into the system in time to realize the electronic traceability of the whole process of vaccine circulation and use.

VI. At this stage, who is the target of the new coronavirus vaccine?

my country's new coronavirus vaccine is targeted for people 18 years of age and above.

Seven. At present, how many doses of the new coronavirus vaccine approved for use in my country are required? How long is the interval?

Currently, two doses of inactivated new coronavirus vaccine are required; the interval between the first dose and the second dose should be 3 weeks or more, and the second dose should be 8 days after the first dose. Finish as early as possible within the week.

Adenovirus vector vaccine requires 1 dose.

Recombinant subunit vaccine requires 3 doses; the interval between the first dose and the second dose, and the interval between the second and third doses is recommended to be 4 weeks or more. The second dose should be completed within 8 weeks after the first dose, and the third dose should be completed 6 days after the first dose.Complete within a month.

8. Where can the new coronavirus vaccine go?

The vaccinations of the new coronavirus vaccine are all carried out in the vaccination unit approved by the local health administrative department. Normally, the vaccination unit is located in the health service center, township health center or general hospital in the jurisdiction. If the vaccination involves some departments or enterprises where the key objects are concentrated, the local area will also set up some temporary vaccination units according to the situation.

The health administrative department or disease prevention and control agency of the jurisdiction will also announce the vaccination units that can be vaccinated against the new crown virus as required, including the location and service hours. Please pay attention to the relevant information release platform.

9. What are the contraindications for vaccination?

The contraindications of vaccination refer to situations where vaccination should not be given. According to the "New Coronavirus Vaccination Technical Guidelines (First Edition)", the usual contraindications for vaccination include: 1. Those who are allergic to the active ingredients of the vaccine, any inactive ingredients, substances used in the production process, or the same kind of vaccination before People who have allergies during the vaccine; 2. People who have had severe allergic reactions to the vaccine in the past (such as acute allergic reactions, angioedema, dyspnea, etc.); 3. People who suffer from uncontrolled epilepsy and other severe neurological diseases (such as transverse Myelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, demyelinating disease, etc.); 4. Patients with fever, or suffering from acute diseases, or acute attacks of chronic diseases, or patients with uncontrolled severe chronic diseases; 5. Pregnant women. Some contraindications, such as fever, are temporary. When the condition that caused the contraindication no longer exists, the vaccine can be vaccinated at a later time.

10. How to discover and grasp the contraindications of vaccination?

During the implementation process, if a severe allergic reaction occurs during the first dose of the vaccine, and it cannot be ruled out that it is caused by the vaccine, the second dose is not recommended. To understand the ingredients of the vaccine, people who have been allergic to the ingredients of the vaccine should not be vaccinated.

When vaccinating, the recipient should truthfully report the health status, disease history, allergy history, etc. to the vaccination doctor; the vaccination doctor will ask about the recipient’s health status and previous allergies history.

11. Can the new coronavirus vaccines from different manufacturers be used instead of vaccination?

According to the "New Coronavirus Vaccination Technical Guidelines (First Edition)", at this stage, it is recommended to use the same company's new coronavirus inactivated vaccine to complete the entire vaccination process. In case of special circumstances such as the inability to continue supply of vaccines, the recipients are vaccinated in different places, and the entire vaccination process cannot be completed with the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine of the same company, inactivated vaccines produced by other companies can be used to complete the vaccination.

12. Where and how to inoculate the new coronavirus vaccine?

At present, the 5 new coronavirus vaccination sites that have been approved are all the deltoid muscles of the upper arm, and the route of vaccination is intramuscular injection.

13. What should I pay attention to during the new coronavirus vaccination process?

During the vaccination process, the recipient should pay attention to and cooperate with the following matters:

Before vaccination, learn about the new crown disease and the new crown virus vaccine in advance. And the vaccination process.

When vaccinating, you need to bring relevant documents (identity card, passport, etc.), and perform personal protection according to local prevention and control requirements, cooperate with on-site vaccination staff to inquire, and truthfully provide your health status and vaccination contraindications And other information.

After vaccination, stay for 30 minutes; keep the skin of the vaccination area clean and avoid scratching the vaccination site with your hands; if there is a suspected adverse reaction, report to the vaccination unit and seek medical attention when necessary.

14. Why should I stay for half an hour after vaccination?

After vaccination, a very small number of people may experience acute allergic reactions and syncope. Severe life-threatening acute allergic reactions usually occur within 30 minutes after vaccination. If an acute allergic reaction occurs, timely treatment measures can be taken at the scene. Syncope also mostly occurs within half an hour after vaccination. If you leave the observation site immediately after vaccination, it may cause accidental injury to the recipient due to syncope. Therefore, the recipient needs to stay in the designated area of ​​the vaccination unit for half an hour after vaccination.

15. Why is there a certain interval between doses of the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine?

Generally, inactivated vaccines require multiple vaccinations to achieve a better immune effect. According to clinical trial data, the first dose of inactivated new crown vaccine can stimulate the body to produce part of the immune response, and after the second dose, it can produce a better immune effect. The interval between doses is generally required to determine the minimum interval between doses based on the results of clinical trials. If not in the program roomIf the two doses of inoculation are completed within the required time, they should be replanted as soon as possible.

16. How do people who have not completed the entire immunization program undergo replanting? Need to start again?

For vaccines whose full immunization consists of two or three doses, and those who have not been vaccinated, it is recommended to replant the unfinished doses as soon as possible, and there is no need to restart vaccination according to the immunization program.

17. Do subjects whose vaccination interval between two doses of the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine is less than 3 weeks need to be replanted?

For those who have completed 2 doses of inactivated new coronavirus vaccination within 14 days, one dose of inactivated vaccine should be supplemented as soon as possible three weeks after the second dose of vaccination. For those who have completed 2 doses of inactivated new coronavirus vaccination within 14-21 days, there is no need to replant.

18. Do I still need booster immunization after the entire inactivated new coronavirus vaccine is inoculated at this stage?

Boost immunization is not recommended at this stage.

19. After vaccination with the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine, if you want to vaccinate other technical routes, is this approach scientific?

At present, vaccination with the new coronavirus inactivated vaccine needs to be completed in accordance with a two-dose immunization program. After the completion of 2 doses of inactivated vaccines, whether booster immunization is necessary, and whether other technical routes can be used for booster immunization, remains to be further studied.

20. It was suggested that the hpv vaccine and the new coronavirus vaccine should not be vaccinated at the same time. How long should the interval be?

The new coronavirus vaccine is a new vaccine. In order to facilitate the identification or differentiation of possible adverse vaccine reactions, it is currently not recommended to vaccinate the new coronavirus vaccine with other vaccines (including hpv vaccine) at the same time. However, it does not mean that other vaccines cannot be vaccinated after receiving the new coronavirus vaccine. It is only recommended that the new coronavirus vaccine and other vaccines should be vaccinated more than two weeks apart. It must be noted that when the rabies vaccine, tetanus vaccine, and immunoglobulin are urgently vaccinated due to animal injuries, trauma, etc., the interval between vaccination with the new coronavirus vaccine may not be considered.

21. Can women of childbearing age and breastfeeding be vaccinated against the new coronavirus?

If you become pregnant after vaccination or get the vaccine without knowing your pregnancy, based on the understanding of the safety of the vaccine, it is not recommended to take special medical measures (such as Termination of pregnancy), it is recommended to do a pregnancy examination and follow-up. For women who have a pregnancy plan, there is no need to delay the pregnancy plan just because of the new coronavirus vaccine.

Although there is no clinical research data on the impact of new coronavirus vaccine on breastfeeding infants and young children of breastfeeding women, based on the understanding of the safety of the vaccine, it is recommended that breastfeeding women who are at high risk of new coronavirus infection ( Such as medical staff, etc.) vaccination. Considering the importance of breastfeeding to the nutrition and health of infants and young children, referring to internationally accepted practices, breastfeeding women are advised to continue breastfeeding after being vaccinated against the new coronavirus.

Can people aged 22, 60 and above be vaccinated against the new coronavirus?

People aged 60 and above are those at high risk of severe illness and death after being infected with the new coronavirus. At present, the number of phase iii clinical trials of the 4 new coronavirus vaccines with conditional approval for marketing has been included in this population is limited, and the phase iii trials of recombinant subunit vaccines are still in progress, and there is no data on the protective efficacy of the vaccine in this population. However, the above-mentioned vaccine phase ⅰ/ⅱ clinical research data show that this population has good vaccination safety. Compared with the 18-59-year-old population, the neutralizing antibody titer after vaccination is slightly lower, but the neutralizing antibody positive conversion rate is similar, suggesting that the vaccine It will also have a certain protective effect on people over 60 years old, and vaccination is recommended.

23. Can people under the age of 18 be vaccinated against the new coronavirus at this stage?

At present, the existing vaccines have not yet obtained clinical trial data for this population, and it is not recommended for people under the age of 18 to be vaccinated.

24. Can people with chronic diseases be vaccinated against the new coronavirus?

People with chronic diseases are those at high risk of severe illness and death after being infected with the new coronavirus. People with stable health conditions and well-controlled chronic diseases are not considered contraindications for new coronavirus vaccination and are recommended to be vaccinated.

25. Can people with impaired immune function be vaccinated against the new coronavirus?

People with impaired immune function are those at high risk of severe illness and death after being infected with the new coronavirus. There is currently no data on the safety and effectiveness of the new coronavirus vaccine for the population (such as patients with malignant tumors, nephrotic syndrome, and AIDS) and people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). The immune response and protective effect of this group of people after vaccination may be reduced. forInactivated vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines are recommended to be vaccinated based on the safety characteristics of previous vaccines of the same type; for adenovirus vector vaccines, although the vector virus used is replication defective, there is no safety data for the same type of vaccine in the past, it is recommended After being fully informed, the individual weighs the benefits outweigh the risks and vaccinates.

Twenty-six. Do I still need to be vaccinated against the new coronavirus if I have been infected with the new coronavirus?

Existing research data shows that there are rare cases of re-infection within 6 months after the new coronavirus infection. People who have been infected with the new crown pneumonia virus (patients or asymptomatic infections) can receive one dose after 6 months on the basis of full notification.

27. How long does it take to produce antibodies against the new coronavirus after being vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine against the new coronavirus?

According to previous clinical trials of inactivated new coronavirus vaccines, about two weeks after the second dose of inactivated vaccine, the vaccinated population can have a better immune effect.

28. Is it necessary to detect antibodies before and after vaccination?

There is no need to carry out new coronavirus nucleic acid and antibody testing before vaccination; routine antibody testing is not recommended as a basis for immunization success after vaccination.

Twenty-nine. Do I still need to do a nucleic acid test after being vaccinated with the new coronavirus vaccine? Can the vaccination certificate replace the nucleic acid test report?

After being vaccinated with the new coronavirus vaccine, a very small number of recipients still have a positive nucleic acid test or disease due to the failure of protection due to the following reasons: 1. After the entire vaccination process, some of them failed due to immune failure. Effective protection is obtained. After exposure to the new coronavirus, this part of the population may be positive for nucleic acid or become ill due to infection with the new coronavirus. 2. It takes some time after vaccination to produce a protective effect. If you are infected with the new coronavirus during this period, you may be positive for nucleic acid or get sick. 3. Patients in the incubation period of the disease or asymptomatic infections, even if they are vaccinated, may still be infected with nucleic acid positive or have disease.

The above-mentioned people may become infected. When nucleic acid screening is required for the prevention and control of the new crown virus, the new crown virus vaccination certificate cannot replace the nucleic acid test report, and the relevant departments must also cooperate with the relevant departments to carry out nucleic acid tests.

Thirty. After the new coronavirus has mutated, does vaccination against the new coronavirus still work?

Judging from the global monitoring of the mutation of the new coronavirus, there is currently no evidence that the virus mutation will invalidate the existing new coronavirus vaccine. Viruses are one of the simplest organisms, and their proliferation depends on living cells. In the process of multiplication, the virus will mutate. The World Health Organization, national research institutions, and vaccine manufacturers are all paying close attention to the mutation of the new coronavirus and are also carrying out relevant research, which will provide early warning and scientific analysis basis for subsequent vaccine development and application.

31. What is the suspected abnormal response to vaccination? What situations are included?

Suspected vaccination abnormal reaction (aefi in English) refers to a reaction or event suspected to be related to vaccination after vaccination, also known as a suspected adverse vaccine reaction. Including the following situations: adverse reactions of vaccines, reactions related to vaccine quality problems, reactions related to vaccination errors, psychogenic reactions, and coupling disorders (coupling reactions).

Thirty-two. What are the common adverse reactions of new coronavirus vaccination?

From the results of previous clinical trials of the new coronavirus vaccine and the information collected during emergency use, the occurrence of common adverse reactions of the new coronavirus vaccine in my country is basically similar to that of other vaccines that have been widely used. Common adverse reactions mainly include redness, swelling, induration, and pain at the site of inoculation, as well as clinical manifestations such as fever, fatigue, nausea, headache, and muscle aches. Follow-up related departments will continue to strengthen the real-time monitoring and evaluation of adverse reactions.

33. What are the differences between general and abnormal vaccination reactions?

Both general and abnormal reactions are vaccine adverse reactions, which are caused by the characteristics of the vaccine itself and have nothing to do with the purpose of vaccination or accidental reactions, and are related to individual differences in the recipient. There are differences between the two in the following aspects: 1. Frequency and severity: General reactions account for the vast majority of adverse reactions. They are transient, mild body reactions and usually do not require treatment; abnormal reactions mainly refer to the cause of adverse reactions. Reactions related to damage to the organs or functions of these individuals are rare and often require treatment. 2. Clinical manifestations: general reactions generally manifest as local reactions such as redness, swelling, induration, and pain at the inoculation site, and systemic reactions such as fever, fatigue, and headache; abnormal reactions often manifest as acute severe allergic reactions. 3. Do you need to report: The general reactions that are relatively mild do not need to be reported;Suspected serious abnormal reactions need to be reported. 4. Investigation and diagnosis: General reactions usually do not require investigation and diagnosis; suspected serious abnormal reactions need to be investigated and diagnosed by the investigation and diagnosis expert group organized by the disease control agency. If there is objection to the investigation and diagnosis conclusions, the municipal or provincial medicine can be used The appraisal expert group will be organized for appraisal.

34. Will our prevention and control measures be adjusted after the vaccination starts?

For individuals, the protective effect of vaccination is not 100%, and it takes a certain amount of time to produce protective antibodies; for groups, without the formation of an immune barrier, The new crown virus is still easy to spread. Therefore, to prevent the rebound of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, some prevention and control measures must be adhered to at this stage, including protective measures such as wearing masks, maintaining social distancing, washing hands frequently, and ventilation. The prevention and control measures of the new crown epidemic for the population will be adjusted in due course as the population coverage of the new crown vaccine increases and the epidemic situation of diseases at home and abroad changes.

Column editor: Gu Wanquan and Zhang Wu

Author of this article: National Health Commission official website

Text editor: Fang Ying

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Label group:[drug] [vaccine incident] [inactivated vaccine] [Vaccination

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