Medical Talk No. 35
I am the refrigerator that is very frequently used in your home. Because I have a lot of delicious and nutritious food in my body, I am also a gathering place for various bacteria and other microorganisms.
It's autumn in Shencheng, and the weather is getting cooler. Have you ever thought about the dead corner of home hygiene-the refrigerator should be cleaned?
Special reminder: Be cautious when buying ozone-type sterilization machines. Be sure to confirm that it is a regular product that has been tested and recorded, otherwise the safety and sterilization effect cannot be guaranteed, and the ozone is too weak It cannot be sterilized, and too thick is harmful to the human body.
This free refrigerator manual is for you~ a lot of dry goods 👇
Today’s Popular science guests come from the Hazard Monitoring Institute of the Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Welcome everyone to leave a message and ask questions~
Mi Ming, Deputy Chief Physician, Hazard Monitoring Institute, Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention
The damage that can occur from running
Where does the air conditioning wind come from?
Small , Nutrition
Why is the refrigerator so dirty?
You can’t see in the refrigerator, but there will be:
Bacteria, fungi, yeasts, viruses and other microorganisms;
Including but not limited to the following pathogenic bacteria:
Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus,
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Listeria monocytogenes ,
Yersinia small intestine, Bacillus cereus, etc.
Doesn’t it mean that low temperature is not good for bacterial reproduction?
Why are there so many bacteria?
Because the refrigerator is neither a safe nor a disinfection cabinet.
Low temperature environment cannot kill
by air, food or other Situation
Microorganisms brought into the refrigerator.
only low temperature,
to delay In the refrigerator
the rapid reproduction of some bacteria and other microorganisms.
means that bacteria and other microorganisms are always there,
is just the ethnic group It reproduces and grows more slowly.
There is also a kind of psychrotrophic bacteria,
It can grow at 0～20℃.
The main psychrotrophic bacteria are
Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia small intestine,
Bacillus cereus Etc.
Data over the years show that
family is a foodborne disease The main place of the outbreak,
accounted for about 50%.
In fact, everyone thinks I am the cleanest,
is too Dirty
Think carefully, there is such a rich food
It’s weird that bacteria don’t come~
The harm of bacteria in the refrigerator to the human body
A variety of foods will be contaminated by bacteria,
The more nutritious the food, the more likely it is that the
such as milk, juice, salad, etc.
And these foods are not fully heated and eaten directly,
potential The risk is even greater.
caused by most bacteria
such as diarrhea, vomiting, fever, etc.
But there are bacteria,
such as the psychrophilic monocytogenes Special bacteria,
can also cause meningitis, sepsis, abortion in pregnant women, etc.
The consequences are serious.
Pregnant women, neonates, and immunocompromised persons
It is a susceptible population of Listeria monocytogenes.
According to the individual’s susceptibility--
Some people’s stomach More sensitive,
prone to diarrhea,
pay more attention The food in the refrigerator is scientifically preserved.
Frozen What should I pay attention to in food?
More than ten degrees below zero can make food have a longer shelf life,
But know that I just let most bacteria "hibernate",
Many psychrotrophic bacteria have strong growth adaptability,
The minimum growth temperature is even lower than 0℃,
Yes The temperature can reach -8°C.
the enzymes they produce still have some activity remaining.
Freezing cannot destroy enzyme activity,
After the frozen product is thawed, the enzyme will be active again,
which will cause the protein in the food to decompose,
Free fatty acids increase.
The result of animal fat oxidation is rancidity,
Shanghai The words are "hao off".
The most taboo of frozen food is to thaw and freeze it repeatedly.
During the freezing process, the water in the cells will form small ice crystals,
Destroyed the cell structure.
Once thawed repeatedly,
will lose a lot of water,
Not only does the flavor and texture of food deteriorate,
Bacteria will "wake up" and multiply rapidly.
Food with damaged cell structure is more susceptible to spoilage.
Experiments show that fresh mackerel that has been frozen for 1 day is placed in For 6 hours at 30°C, the spoilage rate is twice as fast as that of fresh fish. Putting the thawed egg yolk at 18°C for 2 hours will increase the number of bacteria by about 2 times. After 8 hours, the number of bacteria will increase by more than 50 times.
How to use the refrigerator correctly?
Many people use me just to plug in the power and everything is fine.
don’t know that I have the best working temperature.
Because the temperature below 4℃
can effectively suppress most The growth of bacteria,
Almost all bacteria growth stops below -12℃,
Below -18℃, the biological activity of bacteria is minimized.
The temperature of the refrigerator compartment should be kept at 0~4℃,
The temperature of the refrigerator compartment At -12~-18℃,
This is the temperature at which I can store food safely.
Because of the mechanical constraints
thermal cycle and equipment aging, etc.,
The refrigerator temperature plate often fails
to correctly indicate the true temperature in the refrigerator,
The actual operating temperature will be higher than the recommended temperature.
For refrigerators that have been used for many years,
For insurance For the sake of it,
you need to be in the refrigerator and freezer
Place a dedicated thermometer for each.
Don’t stuff me up too much,
The cold air needs to have a circulation space,
to quickly cool down.
Check after a while
Is there any expiration date
and foods that have been spoiled and spoiled.
Throw it away, throw it away, throw it all away
I hate them!
The correct "posture" of food in the refrigerator
The upper layer puts leftovers, cooked food, milk, etc.;
middle layer Put fruits and vegetables in the fruit and vegetable box,
Do not mix fruits and vegetables,
The ethylene released by ripe fruits will accelerate vegetables Corruption.
Place cold meat and fish in the lower layer,
and Food that needs to be thawed;
Put beverages on the door shelf,
Open Condiments, eggs, etc. from the bottle
In this way, cross-contamination can be avoided as much as possible.
Food should be placed in the container,
The container should be clean and dry,
Cover and seal with plastic wrap;
or wrap with plastic wrap ,
Minimum direct contact between plastic wrap and food.
Attention! Don't leave food open in the refrigerator!
Fruits, eggs, vegetables, etc.,
Do not put in the refrigerator after washing,
This will destroy their own defense mechanism,
susceptible to microbial attack and spoilage
So just put it in a clean outer packaging,
Wash before eating.
The storage of vegetables,
can be packaged Layers of soft paper,
and put them in separate plastic bags,
The tie should be loose.
In this way, the humidity in the bag can be adjusted,
can effectively slow down drying,
Extend the shelf life.
Large pieces of meat
It’s best to cut the meat to an appropriate size before freezing.
Bagged and frozen separately,
Take out one piece to thaw when used Eat it later.
Frozen food one night in advance
It’s safest to put in the refrigerator to defrost,
the taste is the least damaged.
If you use it urgently, you can defrost it in a microwave oven.
Do not defrost naturally at room temperature,
Or use tap water and hot water to soak and thaw,
This will give too much bacteria Opportunities for proliferation.
The best storage time of food in the refrigerator
under refrigerated conditions,
Eat leafy vegetables in one or two days, not more than 3 days;
Commercially available pasteurized milk can be stored for 3 to 4 days;
Eggs can be stored for 7-10 days;
fruits with skin
According to different varieties and original maturity, there is a big difference,
The short 2-3 days, the long can reach more than 10 days.
The cut watermelon is best eaten the same day,
opened Drink the juice in two days.
Look more at the storage conditions on the food packaging
According to the manufacturer’s recommendations, it is safest to store!
How to clean the refrigerator?
Give the refrigerating room a "bath frequently".
Although most refrigerating rooms have a defrost function,
But this is not a substitute for manual cleaning of the cold room.
Wipe the accessories frequently,
Keep the refrigerator dry,
Prevent the musty odor due to humidity, lack of ventilation and food residues,
the accumulation of debris.
The freezer compartment should also be cleaned.
Because it takes a long time to cut off the power and melt the ice,
Therefore, it is not only necessary to remove the ice layer on the surface,
More importantly, to remove
Wipe off the stagnant water on the freezer compartment wall and drawer partitions.
There is a place to pay special attention to
The gap between the fruit and vegetable box and the part.
Fruit and vegetable boxes are mostly drawers, which are not easy to clean.
Does the refrigerator with sterilization function need to be cleaned?
Currently, the main sterilization technologies used in refrigerators are
UV sterilization, ozone sterilization,
multi-layer filter device or purification system,
Plasma sterilization, nano-water ion sterilization,
use of antibacterial materials, etc.
Different sterilization techniques have certain limitations,
It can't replace eating the food in the refrigerator in time
and regular manual cleaning.
How to clean manually↓
Do not clean the refrigerator with washing powder, decontamination powder, talcum powder, alkaline detergent, boiling water, brushes, etc. to prevent loss of coating, plastic parts, liner Or pipeline.
Cut off the power supply, soak a soft cloth with clean water or dishwashing detergent, scrub gently, and then wipe off the detergent with clean water. But just removing the residues and stains not only fails to achieve the purpose of cleaning, but may also spread bacteria to every corner of the fruit and vegetable box. According to the experimental results, as long as you spray some medical alcohol (75%) in the fruit and vegetable box after wiping with water, or directly wipe with medical alcohol, harmful bacteria can be eliminated.
After cleaning, plug in the power plug and Check whether the temperature controller is set in the correct position to ensure that the refrigerator is at a temperature that can store food safely.
Wash thoroughly once a month to ensure safety Hygiene; if you are not diligent, you will always need it once a quarter. If you are sorry for my belly, I will be sorry for your belly, hum!
It is recommended that parents wear disposable medical Masks and disposable gloves, wash your hands scientifically after cleaning.
Those with spleen-stomach deficiency and cold spleen and diarrhea should be taken with caution
The refrigerator requires us to organize regularly, separate raw and cooked, store in layers, and not overfill,
Although the freezer can be stored for a long time, do not defrost repeatedly.
After putting the food in the refrigerator, please eat it in time,
Finally, it is recommended to clean the refrigerator at least once every quarter! Don’t think you can not clean it if you use a refrigerator with sterilization function~ToToToToToToToToToTo Massive information, accurate interpretation, all in Sina Finance APP