· Public Health
Diphtheria may once again become a global threat due to antibiotic resistance
March 8, Researchers from the United Kingdom and India published an article in Nature Communications warning: Diphtheria, an acute infectious disease, is gradually becoming resistant to many antibiotics, which may cause the vaccine to fail in the future.
Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It can be fatal if it is not treated in time. In the immunization programs of many countries, vaccinating infants and young children with the "DTP vaccine" can effectively prevent infection, but in low- and middle-income countries, areas that have not been vaccinated or partially vaccinated can still cause infection. The number of diphtheria cases reported globally in 2018 was 16,651, more than double the average from 1996 to 2017. The role of diphtheria vaccine is to neutralize the toxin produced by the diphtheria bacillus. Although the current data does not indicate that the currently used vaccine is ineffective, as the genetic variation of the pathogen-encoding toxin continues to increase, it is necessary to regularly evaluate the vaccine and the treatment of the toxin. Prevent it from becoming a global public health threat again. (University of Cambridge, Nature Communications)
· Mathematical Research
Mochizuki Shinichi’s "ABC Conjecture" paper finally Officially published
The ABC conjecture is a number theory problem with a history of more than 30 years. Mochizuki constructed a unique proof theory for this, and the paper is huge, over 600 pages. On August 30, 2012, Mochizuki Shinichi published his certification process online for the first time. In December 2017, Japanese media reported that the paper was officially accepted by PRIMS. (Kyodo News Agency)
· Climate change
If climate change is not alleviated, the northern hemisphere summer may be as long as 6 months at the end of this century
A paper published in Geophysical Research Letters by researchers from the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences recently predicted that if climate change cannot be alleviated, the central The latitude region will usher in 6 months of summer in 2100. The study used meteorological data from 1952 to 2011, and defined the start date of each season based on temperature. Researchers found that during the 59 years, the summer has increased by 17 days, the winter has decreased by 3 days, and the spring and autumn have decreased by 9 days and 5 days respectively. Spring and summer come earlier and earlier, while the arrival of autumn and winter is gradually delayed. They simulated the length of the seasons in accordance with this trend and found that by 2100, the summer will be as long as 6 months, and the winter will be shortened by at least 2 months. A third-party expert said that this study gave people a sense of the specific impact of climate change. (American Geophysical Union)
· Nutritional metabolism
Low-protein diet does not cause excessive appetite in mice
Published online on March 4 in Cell Metabolism (Cell Metabolism). )’S paper objected to the “protein lever hypothesis” in recent years: a low-protein diet will not createAdult mice have excessive food intake. The research team of the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences observed the effect of lower protein content (1%, 2.5%) food on energy metabolism in mice. The results found that the weight and body fat of mice receiving low-protein and high-fat foods were significantly lower than those of the control group, and their glucose tolerance levels and learning and memory capabilities were also significantly higher than those of the control group. Although transcriptome data analysis showed that 1% low protein treatment caused the hunger pathway in the mouse hypothalamus to be activated, but its food intake did not increase, and there was no overeating phenotype when re-fed with normal protein content food. mTOR The signal pathway may be related to this phenomenon. The study suggests that we may be able to suppress the related pathways through drugs to reduce the hunger and overappetite caused by diet restriction and weight loss. In view of the fact that mice and humans have a lot in common in physiology and metabolism, the study found that it provides a new possibility for humans to lose weight through dieting. (Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Cell Metabolism)
· Earth Science
Iceland has more than 20,000 earthquakes in one week. Volcanoes in the territory may usher in an eruption period
It is reported that on February 24, a 5.7-magnitude earthquake struck a location near the Reykjanes Peninsula in Iceland, which triggered a series of continuous seismic activities. . IMO stated that the magma movement at the junction of the North American plate and the Eurasian plate may be the cause of the earthquake, which may provide "eruptive fuel" to the five active volcanoes on the Reykjanes Peninsula. Since the volcanoes in southern Iceland experience "pulses" every 800 years or so, and the last occurred between the 11th and 13th centuries, if any volcano in southern Iceland erupts in the next few weeks, it can be It is considered that the Icelandic volcano "on time" ushered in another eruption cycle, which is expected and controllable. (IMO, The New York Times, Live Science)
New research finds brain activity data may help stock market forecasts
According to the British "Guardian", a new study in the Journal of Neuroscience found that compared with market trends or actual shareholders’ decision to invest Direction, brain activity may be a better indicator of predicting stock price changes. Researchers from Stanford University in the United States asked volunteers to study the real stock price trend since 2015, and asked them to bet on whether the stock price was rising or falling during the simulated trading session. At the same time, they used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to observe the volunteers’ performance. brain. The study found that the activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the brain can predict the direction of the stock price, and the activity of the forebrain insula (AIns) can predict the inflection point of the stock price, and the results of "neural prediction" are more accurate than the predictions made by volunteers themselves. .
Researchers believe that this finding suggests that we should explore neural signals and make good use of hidden information in the brain. However, the real world is more complicated than laboratory simulation scenarios, and some people have raised questions about this. They believe that although social, psychological and neuroscience factors can well understand financial issues, it does not mean that individuals can predict stocks, even if they can predict. Nor can it change the stock market. (Guardian, Journal of Neuroscience)
· Epidemic Bulletin
On March 8, 8 new cases were confirmed in mainland China, all of them Overseas import
According to the official website of the National Health Commission, 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government) and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps reported 8 new confirmed cases from 0-24 on March 8 , All cases were imported from abroad (4 in Sichuan, 2 in Shanghai, and 2 in Guangdong); 9 new cases of asymptomatic infection (all imported from abroad). As of 24:00 on March 8, a total of 90,002 confirmed cases and a total of 4,636 deaths have been reported in the mainland of my country.
According to the WHO report, as of March 8th Central European Time 18:02 (01:02, March 9th, Beijing time). In the past 24 hours, there were 354,629 new confirmed cases and 7,020 new deaths worldwide: 69,609 new confirmed cases in Brazil and 1,555 new deaths in Brazil; new in the United States There were 57,269 confirmed cases and 1,676 new deaths. There are a total of 116,521,281 confirmed cases worldwide and a total of 2,589,548 deaths. (National Health Commission, WHO)
Prepared by: Liu Kai, Xu Chuchu, Quan Jikang, Wei Xiao
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